Character Profile

He was the son of Wen Ding, the brother of Di Yi and the uncle of King Zhou.

In the era of the alternation of the Shang and Zhou dynasties and the great upheaval of history, he was unable to carry out his mission or fulfill his ambition, so he went to Joseon in defiance of the declining Yin dynasty and established Joseon, whose legacy still exists today.

In Confucius’ “Analects of Confucius – Weizi”, it is said, “Weizi went away, Kezi was his slave, and Bigan advised him to die, so there were three benevolent people in Yin.

Biographical experience

Assisting Shang Zhou

He was the uncle of King Zhou of the Shang Dynasty, the son of Wen Ding, and the brother of Di B. He was called Jizi because of his fiefdom and Jizi.

Kezi government, see the king of zhou dining will use the elephant chopsticks, feeling zhou very extravagant, sighed and said: “he for the elephant chopsticks, will be jade cup, for the cup, will be thinking about the far side of the rare and strange things and the royal carry on, the public opinion horse palace room from this beginning, can not be Zhen also.”

As a matter of fact, King Zhou of the Shang Dynasty was tyrannical and unscrupulous, drinking all day long and ignoring the government, and wasting money. King Zhou’s uncle, Kezi, saw that King Zhou was so unscrupulous, and tried hard to advise against it, but repeatedly advised King Zhou did not listen.

When someone advised Min Zi to leave, Min Zi said, “As a minister, to go without listening to advice is to manifest the king’s evil and please himself to the people, I can’t bear it”. When Min Zi saw that the six hundred years of the kingdom created by Cheng Tang was about to be cut off in the hands of King Zhou, his heart was pained, so he cut his hair and pretended to be crazy, wearing his hair and pretending to be crazy, and drummed his zither to grieve for himself, and just played and sang the song “Min Zi Cao” every day to vent his grief and anger. When Zhou saw this, he thought that Jizi was really crazy, so he imprisoned him and reduced him to a slave.

King Wu Visits Jizi

At the end of King Zhou’s reign (1124 B.C.), King Wu of Zhou raised an army to invade Zhou. In the battle of Muye, King Zhou was defeated and burned himself. King Wu invaded the Shang capital Chaoge and the Shang dynasty was overthrown. At this time of change in the Shang and Zhou dynasties, Ke Zi took advantage of the chaos to flee to Mount Ke (now known as Kesi Mountain in Lingshuan County, Jincheng City, southeastern Shanxi) and lived a short reclusive life in Mount Ke (now known as Kesi Mountain).

The natural black and white stones were used by Ji Zi to observe the sky and to understand the movement of the stars, the four seasons of heaven and earth, the five elements of yin and yang, and the theory of change of all things. After King Wu destroyed the Shang Dynasty and established the Zhou Dynasty, King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty, who was eager for wisdom, visited Taihang and found Min Zi in Lingchuan to ask for advice on ruling the country.

Mingyi, Jizi

King Wu asked Jizi about the cause of the downfall of Yin Shang, but Jizi did not speak, for he did not want to speak ill of his former kingdom. King Wu also realized that he had lost his tongue, so he asked him how to govern the country in accordance with the mandate of Heaven. Jizi then presented to King Wu the “Nine Categories of Hongfan” handed down by Xia Yu, known as Jizi Mingyi. After listening to it, King Wu admired it so much that he wanted to ask Jizi to come out to govern the country and reappoint him. But Jizi had already said to Weizi, “I will not be a servant of the new dynasty if the Shang dynasty falls.” (Shang Shu – Weizi) He did not want to be a submissive of Zhou, so he refused to go back to the mountain, and King Wu had no choice but to leave.

For fear that King Wu will come again to invite, Kezi multiplied King Wu left, he quickly led his disciples and a group of Shang’s legacy of a large number of people, hastily left Kezi Mountain to the east, from then on, Lingchuan has left the legend of Kezi’s footsteps, chess mountain is also gradually called by people to plot chess mountain, plot chess ridge.

East to Korea

The Jizi statue of Jizi crossed the sea from present-day Jiaozhou Bay to Joseon, where he had some clan ties with the Shang, and founded the Jizi Marquisate. The same group went with the noblemen of the Shang Dynasty, such as Jing Ruisong, Qin Ying, Nangong Xiu, Kang Hou and Lu Qi.

It is said that when Minako and his party arrived at the Yellow Sea, they took a raft and drifted eastward. After a few days, they landed on an island, and when they saw the beautiful scenery of the mountains and the water, the grass and the sky, they called the place Joseon. From then on, more than 5,000 people led by Minako settled there. It is said that after arriving in Joseon, Minja built houses, cultivated farmland, raised silkworms, wove cloth, burned pottery and wove bamboo, and applied eight simple laws to prevent and settle disputes among people. He also spread the culture of his homeland and spread Go to the four corners of the world.

Later, when King Wu of Zhou knew that Min Zi was far away from the East, he sent someone to Joseon to make Min Zi the king of Joseon and invited Min Zi to visit his hometown. King Wu thus made him a marquis of Joseon, not treating him as a vassal. At this time, Minako was 52 years old. Later, Min Zi returned to the capital from Joseon and came to see Ji Fa, the son of Zhou. When he passed by the ruins of the former capital of the Shang dynasty, he saw that the original palace was in ruins and that crops had been planted in some places. He was so hurt that he wanted to cry, but he could not, and he wanted to sob like a woman. He cunning children, not with me good!” He regretted the death of the Shang Dynasty. Here the “cunning boy” refers to King Zhou, meaning that you did not listen to me at that time, and now you have ended up in this situation. When the Yin people of Chao Ge heard this, they were all moved to tears.

The “cunning boy” in the poem is a metaphor for King Zhou, who does not listen to advice. The poem uses the form of a love song between a man and a woman to reflect the relationship between the king and his subjects, which is the source of the later generation’s simile.

Minzu Korea

The “Shang Shu” includes the “Hong Fan” of Jizi, while the “Zhou Yi” trigram lines the only reliable historical figure mentioned, only Jizi. Confucius said: “Yin has three benevolent”, Min Zi, Bi Gan, Weizi and called the “three benevolent”. The important historical books of the Joseon Dynasty, such as “The Legacy of the Three Kingdoms”, “Dongguk Tongjian”, and “Dongseoksangmu”, have also recorded the history of Min Zi in some detail.

The earliest recorded history of Korea in Chinese history is that after the destruction of the Shang Dynasty in the Western Zhou Dynasty, the relics of the Shang Dynasty, Jizi, went to the Korean Peninsula and established the “Jizi Marquis State” with the local natives, which was destroyed by Wei Man, a native of the State of Yan, during the Han Dynasty in China. It was first recorded in the history of Korea in the late 3rd century B.C. In “The Records of the Grand Historian” by Sima Qian, a Chinese historian of the Han Dynasty, it is written that Minzu, the uncle of Zhou, the last king of the Shang Dynasty, brought the rituals and systems of the Shang Dynasty to the northern part of the Korean Peninsula after King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty conquered Zhou, and was elected as the king by the people there and recognized by the Zhou Dynasty. It is called “Minzu Chosun” in history.

In 1120 B.C., Jizi, an important minister of Shang during the Zhou dynasty, was feuded in Joseon by King Wu of Zhou. The history of Minako Joseon continued for more than a thousand years until it was destroyed by Weiman of Yan in the Western Han Dynasty, who established Weiman Joseon. It can be said that Minori Joseon was the beginning of the civilization of the Korean Peninsula. Minja Suyu was a famous and virtuous minister at the end of the Yin Dynasty, and was regarded by Confucius as one of the “three benevolent men” of Yin because of his noble character. When King Zhou was politically persecuted due to his ineptitude, Minako led his clan to leave Korea. Minako’s entry into the Korean peninsula not only brought advanced culture, advanced farming, sericulture and weaving techniques, but also brought in a large number of bronze artifacts, in addition to formulating legal provisions such as the “eight forbidden rules”, which are corroborated by a large number of ancient Chinese texts and Korean history books, as well as bronze artifacts and pottery excavated in Korea and ground monuments in Korea. The existence of the Joseon Dynasty is confirmed by a number of ancient Chinese texts and Korean history books, as well as by bronze and pottery artifacts excavated in Joseon and the ground monuments of Joseon. Since ancient times, both Chinese and Korean people have cherished this documented historical fact. This historical theory has been followed in history books and textbooks of Korea and Korea since the beginning of Korea’s own history, or until the 1960s. Minzu Chosun was a local power established by the descendants of Yin Shang on the Korean peninsula, and was subordinate to Zhou and then to Qin, as a vassal state of Zhou and Qin overseas. Minzu Chosun was replaced by Weiman Chosun, which became a “foreign vassal” and a vassal state of the Han Dynasty. When Emperor Wu of Han invaded Chosun, he divided its territory into four counties, which were the frontier areas of Han. The history of Koguryo and the history of Bohai constitutes the basic series of the ancient history of Northeast China and the history of the peoples and territories of Northeast China, and the history of Northeast China begins with the history of Koguryo Korea. The Joseon wild history “The Legacy of the Three Kingdoms” fabricates the rumor that the descendants of Tangun moved south with their people after Mineo came to Joseon so as not to cause conflict with the people Mineo brought with him. These people later became the originators of Samhan. Since there is no other historical record in between, it is generally believed that the “Legacy of the Three Kingdoms” written during the Goryeo period is not credible because it was made up by a later generation.

Development of Northern Korea

Chinese books that record the development of Joseon by Kezi include “The Great Chronicle of Shang Shu”, “The Records of the Grand Historian”, “The Book of Han”, “The Book of Later Han”, and “The Three Kingdoms”. Both the Historical Records and the Shangshu Dazhuan record that King Wu of the Zhou dynasty conferred the title of Jizi in Joseon.

In the early years of the Western Han Dynasty, the book “Shang Shu Da Zhuan” reads: “King Wu won over Yin, succeeded Duke Lu Fu, and released Min Zi from prison. Min Zi could not bear the release of Zhou, so he went to Joseon. When King Wu heard of this, he sealed the kingdom with Joseon.” In Shang Shu – Weizi, Weizi refers to Jizi as his “father’s teacher”. The pre-Qin history book “Bamboo Book Chronicles” cloud: “Bo Yi and Shu Qi went to hide in Shuyang Mountain. Or told Bo Yi Shu Qi said: ‘Yin Zi in, father teacher in Yi, am lonely bamboo and the king of the, to clip incite the king’s ashes, business can be restored.'” Father teacher in the Yi, and Jizi development of Korea coincides. In the Western Han Dynasty, Jiao Yanshou’s “Yi Lin” also says: “The land of Joseon is protected by Ji Bo. Their accounts can corroborate each other. Among them, the “History – Song Weizi Shiji” is more systematic and specific in its account.

The Book of Han – Geography is more specific: “Xuantu and Lelang were set up at the time of Emperor Wu, and they were all barbarians of Joseon, Yoon and Juri. When the Yin dynasty was in decline, Ji Zi went to Joseon and taught its people ritual and righteousness, as well as the weaving of silkworms in the fields. The people of Lelang were forbidden to break eight rules: if they killed each other, they would pay for it by the time; if they hurt each other, they would pay for it by the grain; if they stole from each other, the men would be taken as their slaves and the women as their maids. If you want to redeem yourself, 500,000 people, although exempt from being a citizen, the common people are still ashamed of it, married to take no collateral. So the people did not steal from each other, there was no door closed, and the women were chaste and faithful. The people of the field eat with fruits and beans, the capital is quite relaxed to follow the officials and the people of the county, often eat with cups and vessels. County at the beginning to take officials in Liaodong, officials see people without closed hide, and the people to the Jia, the night is theft, the custom is slightly thinner. Today in the violation of the prohibition of immersion, to more than sixty articles. Valuable, the benevolent and virtuous also! However, the eastern barbarians are soft and gentle by nature, different from the three parties outside, so Confucius mourning the road does not work, set up floating in the sea, want to live in nine barbarians, there are also to Fu!

Descendants of Jizi

The Book of the Later Han Dynasty – Dong Yi Zhuan also recounts the situation of the descendants of Ji Zi: “After more than forty generations, to Joseon Hou Jun, who claimed to be the king. At the beginning of the Han Dynasty, there was chaos, and Yan, Qi and Zhao people went to take refuge in the land of thousands of mouths; while Yan people Weiman broke Jun and made himself king of Joseon, and passed the kingdom to Sun Youqu.”” In the past, Jizi defied the fate of the declining Yin and took refuge in Korea. The first time his country’s customs were not heard of, and then the eight covenants, so that people know the prohibition, so the eups are free of prostitution and the doors do not Bibimbap, back to the naughty customs, on the lenient law, line hundreds of thousands of years, so the Eastern barbarians to be gentle for the wind. This is different from the three parties. If the government is smooth, then the morality and righteousness exist. When he thought that the nine barbarians could live in the city, he said: ‘What is so ugly about a gentleman living in the city?

The same account is also found in the Three Kingdoms Records – Dong Yi Zhuan. The Three Kingdoms Records cites “Wei Liao” as being more detailed, and states that after Ji Zhun fled to the south, “his sons and relatives stayed in the country because they assumed the surname Han”. The country indeed had both the surname Ji and Han.

Historical Achievements

being in trouble

One of the important characteristics of Jizi’s thinkers is to see the microscopic. When a country and a nation are in decline, the outward appearance of the image of the roaring, but in fact the internal bag has come up, the so-called gold and jade outside, but the failure of the wool inside. The history of the Song Weizi family contains “Zhou for the elephant chopsticks and Jizi sob”, which is to say this truth. “The quarter of the Shang Dynasty, the abolition of the discipline, the moral degradation of the extreme carry on.” (Wang Guowei’s words) The fall of the Shang dynasty was never the fault of King Zhou alone, but the entire nation was addicted to the degenerate customs that made the world’s morals degenerate, as in the last dynasties of the past.

When he was advised to leave the Yin merchants for another job, he said, “If I do so, I will be “manifesting the evil of the king” and “speaking to the people. He said that if I did so, I would be “manifesting the evil of the king” and “speaking to the people”. So, Min Zi pretended to be mad and lived alone in seclusion on Mount Minchi, and in his spare time, he expressed his depression and misery through the music “Min Zi Cao”. When King Zhou learned of Jizi’s recent condition, he imprisoned him in a place called “Jizi Terrace” today. Jizi Terrace is in present-day Xihua County, Henan Province. It was there that Jizi conceived the great idea of the Nine Categories of Hongfan.

Dharma Granth Sahib

When King Wu of the Zhou defeated the Shang, a small state, he respectfully and sincerely taught Ke Zi. He then taught King Wu of the Zhou the Nine Domains of the Hongfan Way of Governance.

The position of this Hong Fan Jiu Cao in the history of Chinese thought is really remarkable. It is an administrative law of the Chinese autocratic dynasties, which is particularly important for the formation of Chinese autocratic society. It also lays the foundation of the five elements of yin and yang and provides the framework of traditional Chinese thinking.

From the content of the Nine Categories of Hong Fan, it covers all the practical contents of life, such as the natural world, human beings, behavior, governance, political program, astronomy, calendar, fundamental rules, virtue of being a human being, climate signs, types of misfortune, etc. However, it is not knowledge in the sense of Western epistemology, but an accumulation of experience for practical purposes. The nine categories of Hongfan are in fact an empirical summary of the social and political order of the king’s speech and behavior. In his article “The Origin of Confucianism,” Chen Lai says, “It is surprising that all of the ancient Chinese apocalyptic literature focuses on social affairs, which cannot but be a cultural attitude and cultural spirit unique to the Chinese race.”

The real purpose of the “nine categories of the Hongfan” is the rule of social order, which is very different from the ontological purpose of Aristotle’s theory of categories. In terms of the purpose of thinking, Aristotle’s theory of categories was developed out of a “purely intellectual” interest and curiosity. On the other hand, the “nine categories of the Hongfan” were proposed out of the practical need to solve the social reality.

From the point of view of method, Aristotle reflects consciously on the methods and ways of acquiring the categories, and has a dialectical tone in his thinking, a purely rational attitude away from the sensory experience of life. This is reflected in the content of the first four chapters of the chapter on categories. On the contrary, the nine categories of Hong Fan are the empirical knowledge sought by the Chinese for the practical care of life and society. “The standard of these categories is experience, so they can be regarded as a synthesis of experience.” (Cheng C.Y.) From this we can learn that the Western way of thinking is a trinity of ontology, language, and logic, while the traditional Chinese way of thinking is a trinity of social, practical, and empirical. The so-called “Four Great Inventions” of ancient China are actually the “masterpieces” of such thinking.

The greatest thing about Min Zi as a thinker is that he first proposed the political philosophy of “social justice” and hoped for an “enlightened monarchy”. “Five said the imperial pole …… Huangji, the emperor built its extreme …… No bias, no bias, follow the king’s righteousness. There is no good, follow the king’s way. There is no evil, follow the king’s way. No bias, no party, the way of the king is swept away. No party, no bias, the way of the king is peaceful. No rebellion, no side, the way of the king is upright …… All the common people, the extreme of the Fu said, is obedient is line, in order to approach the light of the Son of Heaven. Said the son of heaven as the parents of the people, as the king of the world.” (Shiji Song Weizi Shiji) Here Jizi elaborated the spiritual-historical view of “the righteousness of the king’s way”. The “king builds his own pole” means that he wants the king to establish a model of governance, which is the “king’s way” (that is, the way to follow the king, the way to follow the king, the righteousness of the king). Later people interpreted “Huang” as great and “Ji” as middle, and also said, “The way of greatness is to establish its middle, which means to perform the righteousness of nine categories.”

Culture and people

Shortly after that summit meeting, King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty gave him Joseon as a fief of Minako. When Minja came to his fief, he taught the people how to cultivate the fields and teach them manners, in addition to the “Eight Articles of Teachings”, which are constitutional in nature. Today, Joseon’s preference for white clothing is a continuation of the custom that “the Yin people were white”.

“When the Yin dynasty was in decline, Jizi went to Korea and taught its people ritual and righteousness, and wove silkworms in the fields” (Hanshu Geography)

“In the past, when Jizi was fit for Joseon, he made the eight teachings to teach the people, and the people did not steal without the closure of the gateway” (Three Kingdoms, Book of Wei, Biography of the Eastern Barbarians)

Educational Ideology


The idea expressed by Jizi in the Hong Fan is the supremacy of the gods, reflecting the social reality of the Yin and Shang dynasties when “the people were led to serve the gods”. He summed up the experience of the Shang Dynasty in setting up the religion of the gods and believed that rulers must act in accordance with the law of all things born, and that those who violated this law would be punished by heaven.

“I heard that in the old days, Father Jiu muddied the flood, and presented his five elements; the emperor was furious, and did not give the nine domains of the flood, and the Yi Lun was weary. Father Jiu was put to death, and Yu became the successor; and Heaven was pleased with Yu’s nine categories of floods.

This passage means, I heard that once upon a time Father Jiu used the method of blocking to control the flood and disturbed the five elements, so God was angry and did not pass the nine categories of the Great Law to him, thus he did not know the common way of ruling the country and the people. After Father Jiu was put to death, Yu succeeded him, and God gave him the nine categories of the Great Law, so he got the common way of ruling the country and people and made this arrangement.

The five elements, namely, gold, wood, water, fire and earth, are the first of the nine categories, each with its own nature, and must be used in accordance with its nature. Although this idea is shrouded in mysticism, it is still progressive and reasonable. For example, the five material elements of gold, wood, water, fire, and earth are placed in “interrelationship” for comparison, which shows the difference between “moist” and “dry” in nature, and “up” in The difference between “top” and “bottom” in terms of orientation, and between “curved” and “straight” in terms of form. Pay attention to the characteristics and functions of things, trying to understand things from the connection and differences, including the germ of the idea of difference, thus opening up the idea of studying the contradiction of things. Another example is that there is a certain objective relationship between the five material elements of gold, wood, water, fire and earth, but Jiuji failed because he did not grasp the nature of water and earth, and took the approach of using earth to fight water; Yu summed up this lesson and grasped the situation of the mountains and rivers through actual measurements, and at the same time, according to the objective property of “water is said to run down”, he took the method of dredging and achieved the success of governing the level of earth. The success of the five elements This understanding of the relationship between the “five elements” and the various material properties contains the germ of the idea of inner connection, which has brought useful inspiration to future generations. Through his struggle to heal water and soil, Yu was able to promote his dynamism through his initial understanding of the various properties of the “five elements”. For example, recognizing the property of “water”, he developed rice production; recognizing the property of “fire”, he promoted slash-and-burn farming; recognizing the property of “wood”, he promoted the manufacture of various means of transportation; recognizing the property of “wood”, he promoted the manufacture of various means of transportation. Recognizing the characteristics of “wood is said to be straight and curved”, we promote the manufacture of various means of transportation; recognizing the characteristics of “gold is said to be from leather”, we develop smelting and casting to change nature for human use.

Jizi believed that the Son of Heaven must set a standard for the people to follow. “The emperor builds his pole.” To do so, “but when the common people are in your pole, tin you to protect the pole”. He believed that this was the only way to make the people obedient to the teachings and not dare to break the law. And the people must obey the Son of Heaven absolutely, “without partiality, obey the King’s righteousness; without good, obey the King’s way; without evil, obey the King’s way.” Do not have partiality, but obey the righteousness of the previous king; do not intermingle with selfish preferences, but obey the way of the previous king; do not do evil, but obey the right way of the previous king. A gentleman has absolute authority, “Only the Pardoning is for blessing, only the Pardoning is for authority, only the Pardoning is for jade food. There is no minister who makes blessings, who makes mighty jade food.” A ruler can give gifts, can give punishments, and can eat good jade food; a subject cannot give gifts, cannot give punishments, and cannot eat good jade food, so a subject cannot usurp it.

Min Zi considered divination as a way to detect God’s will and therefore must be valued, “Choose those who establish divination, and then order divination.” He chose those who could divine with tortoise shells and with yarrow, and ordered them to divine according to different signs. When the ruler had doubts, he had to “consult with Naixin, with the ministers, with the common people, and with divination.” First of all, the ruler had to think about it himself, then he had to consult with the ministers, then with the people, and finally he had to ask for divination. But divination was indicated by tortoise or divination, and had the right to decide. The ministers and the common people were just the accompaniment. Therefore, “If thou followest, the tortoise followeth, and the divination followeth, and the ministers reverse, and the common people reverse, it is auspicious.” The ruler agrees, the tortoise agrees, and the divination agrees, but the minister does not agree, and the people do not agree, which is also auspicious. That is to say, for the monarch to do things, even if the secretary and the people do not agree, but as long as the monarch’s own will and divination agreed, is also auspicious. This shows the decisive role of divination in the establishment of the emperor’s Shinto religion.

Jizi believed that if the ruler did not obey the will of heaven, heaven would warn him of disasters, and heaven and man would correspond. Therefore, there is the saying of “sign of rest” and “sign of blame”. The so-called “sign of rest” is a good sign, which is in accordance with the will of heaven, so that the wind and rain will be smooth and all things will be auspicious. The so-called “blame signs”, that is, bad signs, contrary to the will of God, it is a disaster, everything is not good.

remedy a deficiency and correct it

Min Zi points out that all different types of personality traits and character should be taken to remedy the deficiencies and bring them into conformity with the right path. He said, “The king’s way is righteous without repetition or eccentricity. Don’t be repetitive, don’t be eccentric, the king’s way is upright, and anyone who is not in line with the way of uprightness, who is partial to rigidity and softness, should be suppressed. He said, “Ping Kang is upright, strong Fuyou is just and upright, Xie You is soft and upright, Shen Qian is just and upright, and Gao Ming is soft and upright.” He advocates dealing with those who are fair and upright with uprightness; with those who are strong and unapproachable with rigidity to subdue them; and with those who are calm and amiable with softness to educate them. Correct the faults of the quiet man, and remedy them with rigidity; correct the faults of the proud man, and remedy them with gentleness.

Min Zi believes that integrity is the highest standard of virtue, not too rigid and not too soft, which is in line with the way of integrity. It is only when the ruler and the people are in their places and keep their parts that they do not violate the way of righteousness. If you go against the way of righteousness, you will have faults. “The king’s province is only the year, the secretary’s only the month, and the teacher’s only the day. There is no change in the year, the month, the day, and the hour; the hundred grains are used to become, the mowing is used to become clear, the handsome people are used to seal, and the household is peaceful and healthy.” When the king has a fault, it affects one year, the minister affects one month, and the teacher and Yin affect one day. If there is no change in a year, a month or even a day, the hundred valleys will grow, politics will be bright, excellent people will be appointed, and the country will be peaceful. The king’s way is the right way, to make up for the bias is right, to be peaceful and healthy and upright, and all things will be good and the country will be peaceful. This is the scheme of governance designed by Min Zi.

Focus on five things

In summing up the lessons of the fall of Yin, Jizi also proposed to educate the ruler and the prince in the “five things” of appearance, speech, sight, hearing, and thought.

“Five things: one is the appearance, two is the speech, three is the vision, four is the hearing, five is the thought. The appearance is said to be respectful, the words are said to be from, the vision is said to be clear, listen to is Cong, thinking is Rui. Christine for the su, from for and, Ming for the manufacturers, Cong for the strategy, Rui for the saint.”

Min Zi said that the five things are appearance, speech, inspection, hearing and receiving, and contemplation. The appearance should be respectful, the speech should be organized, the inspection should be clear, the listening and receiving should be intelligent, and the thinking should be thorough. If you look respectful, you will be serious; if you speak in an orderly manner, you will be able to do things smoothly; if you inspect clearly, you will be able to distinguish everything; if you listen and receive intelligently, you will be able to plan things successfully; if you think and consider thoroughly, you will become a sage. As a great teacher, Min Zi proposed to pay attention to the “five things”, which was obviously directed at the monarch and the prince. He believed that the ruler and the prince should not just be a loner, but should also have more contact with the outside world, and should “plan for the ministers and the common people”, pay more attention to the “five things”, be humble to others, and see and hear a lot in order to make themselves wise and wise and make good decisions. In this way, he can become an ideal sage.

Only use the material

Kezi said to King Wu of the Zhou, “Where the common people of the earth have schemes, actions and integrity, you should think of them; if they do not concur in the extreme, and do not suffer from blame, the emperor should accept them.” What he meant was that where the people had tact, deeds, and integrity, the Son of Heaven should think of them often. Those whose conduct is not in harmony with the law, and who have not fallen into sin, the king should be tolerant of them. Those who are resourceful, capable, and guarded are the best talents and can be reused. Even those who do not reach the standard of superior talent should be enticed and nurtured so that they can be used by me. This is an example of how Jizi broke through the limitations of theocracy in the appointment and selection of talents.

In addition, Jizi proposed eight important government officials in the “eight governments”: “one is the food, two is the goods, three is the ritual, four is the Secretary, five is the Secretary, six is the Secretary, seven is the Bin, eight is the teacher.” That is, one is to manage the people’s food, two is to manage the property, three is to manage the sacrifice, four is to manage housing, five is to manage education, six is to manage justice, seven is to receive guests, eight is to govern military affairs. Min Zi put the official of the division of managing education, at the fifth position, which shows that he attached importance to the status of education.

Eight Laws

The Minoan enacted eight laws.

1, Death to those who kill

2, compensation for the injured

3, theft as a slave

4, men and women can not mess with

5, the same name may not marry

6, tribesmen are not allowed to cross the border

7, the tribe is not allowed to feud

8, life to avoid

Historical Argument

Min Zi and Min Zi Joseon occupy an important place in the ancient history of Shang and Zhou China and the history of Northeast China. Minzu appears in the history of China, Chinese thought and culture as a philosopher, politician, representative of Yin Shang thought and culture, representative of ancient Chinese intellectuals. His learning, his character and his influence have not received due comment for a long time.

The development of ancient Korea by Minako can be argued from four aspects.

1. records from ancient Chinese history books.

2. Records of ancient Korean history books.

3. Proof of archaeological findings and folklore.

4. Extrapolate from the history of future generations forward.

The ancient Korean region included the eastern part of the present-day Liaodong Peninsula in China and the northern part of the present-day Korean Peninsula. In the 12th century B.C., Minja, a relic of the Yin Shang dynasty, established the Minja dynasty in this region and passed on the kingdom for more than 900 years; after the last king of the dynasty, Minjoon, was usurped by Weiman, he went south to establish his kingdom for 200 years and developed the southern part of the peninsula. They became an important part of the later Korean nation as immigrants. The historical records of ancient China and ancient Korea, as well as archaeological and folklore data, can prove the history of Minjoo and the development of ancient Korea by the Minjoo Dynasty.

An examination of the Jizi and related issues

(I) Min Zi and his time to go east and come to Zhou

The official history of China has Minori Korea as the beginning of the ancient Joseon dynasty. It is not a fiction that Minori was a real person, “Minori, the name of the country, a viscount”. Weizi and Minako were actually the titles of the land collected in the capital, not the ruler of the people outside the capital, so they were also called “son”. The “Shangshi – Jizi” said “Jizi name Xuyu, Zhou’s relatives, or as the father, or as the brother of the concubine”. In the “History of Song Weizi’s family”, it is said that “Jizi was a relative of Zhou”. He was an important minister during the time of King Zhou of the Shang Dynasty. Confucius said, “There are three benevolent people in Shang”, and Jizi was one of them. He was a historical figure who had a great influence on Joseon and was respected and loved by the Korean people for many generations, and the Goguryeo people “serve the gods of the star, the sun, the khan, and the minzu. In Korea and South Korea before the 1990s, there were still shrines dedicated to Minako. King Zhou of the Shang Dynasty was despotic, “proud of the wine pool and meat forest between”, refused to advise and decorate the wrong, the ministers did not follow, the country’s power was declining. “three benevolent” force to advise to no avail, Bi Gan was cut open heart view orifice, Weizi reluctantly hidden away, Kezi feigned madness as a slave. “Weizi’s departure, Kezi’s slave, and Bigan’s death, each against the heart and each to get their own place. After Zhou destroyed the Shang, King Wu of Zhou ordered Zhaogong to “release the prisoner of Min Zi”. Min Zi could not bear the pain of the death of Shang and left for Liaodong to establish the ancient kingdom of Korea. In which year did Min Zi leave Liaodong? To solve this question, we must first clarify the time when Zhou destroyed Shang. Let’s start from King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty’s Mengjin Military Watch, as it was the prelude to the destruction of the Shang Dynasty. The Records of the Grand Historian of the Zhou: “In the ninth year of King Wen’s Xuye, King Wu went up to Bi for sacrifice, and watched the soldiers arrive at Mengjin.” The Great Chronicle of the King of Kings – King Zhou: “Xi Bo was buried in Bi after his death.” “Bi, the name of King Wen’s tomb also.” “Bi star is the main soldier, so the division out and sacrifice Bi.” It can be seen that “Bi” refers to both the tomb of King Wen and the star Bi. The “nine years of Xuye” is the ninth year of the succession of King Wu of Zhou (King Zhou thirty-two sacrifices). So, why do you want to call “King Wen Xu Ye nine years”? King Wen of Zhou was ordered to destroy the Shang Dynasty, but it was not completed, King Wu “to the great unity has not yet been set, how can there be a change of the king’s name? Therefore, he succeeded to the throne but did not change his reign. The term “Xuye” can be interpreted as the successor of King Wen’s unfinished business of destroying the Shang. The “Records of the Grand Historian of the Zhou Dynasty” refers to the 9th year of King Wen’s reign as the time when Mengjin observed the military. However, it is said in the “Collection and Interpretation” that “King Wu observed the military in the east in the eleventh year, and overcame Zhou in the thirteenth year.” The “golden cord chapter” cloud: “eleven years King Wu served shut, view soldier Mengjin, thirteen years to overcome the Zhou, fifteen years of illness, the Duke of Zhou asked for orders, the king has healed, after four years and collapse, then King Wu year 93 years carry on. And Taishigong cloud nine years Wang Guanbing, eleven years to attack the Zhou, it is thought that King Wu reign years and the “Shangshu” against very sparse.” Why “History” and “Collection” and “Golden Cord Chapter” is not consistent with the time recorded? There is a reason for this, “the King of the Emperor Da Ji – King Zhou” contains: “because of King Wen, nine years for eleven years.” The Complete Explanation of the Shang Shu – Zhou Shu also says: “The year of the upper inheritance of King Wen was eleven years.” Both “nine years” and “the year of King Wen” refer to the ninth year of King Wen’s Xuye. Why do we need to change “nine years” to “eleven years”? There are two reasons: King Wen was ordained to die in nine years, and when he conquered Zhou, it happened to be the ninth year of King Wen’s Xuye, so he changed the ninth year to the eleventh year out of taboo; he was about to destroy Shang, which means that King Wen’s “ordained” and “Xuye” tasks were about to be completed, so he had to use his own year. The year was about to be destroyed. There are differences in the historical records as to whether Zhou launched an attack on Shang immediately after Mengjin’s observation of the army. Both the aforementioned Jijie and Jinzhongzhang (The Golden Cordon) state that the attack was not launched immediately after Mengjin’s military observation, but only two years later. The Records of the Grand Historian of the Zhou Dynasty also says that it was only after “two years of residence” that “all the vassals were informed” of the destruction of Shang Zhou. However, “The Great Chronicle of the King” states that after Mengjin observed the soldiers, he launched an attack on Shang Zhou and destroyed the Shang Zhou Dynasty. The author believes that the record of “the king of the king” is correct. Because, the nine years of King Wenye of Zhou, that is, the thirty-two sacrifices of King Zhou of Shang, and this year, is also the time of the destruction of Zhou of Shang, there can not be two years after the war of destruction of Shang. For the sake of clarity, a brief list is as follows (those whose sources are not noted in the table appear in the text and are noted).

After the destruction of the Shang by King Wu of Zhou, some soothing measures were taken to ease the political turmoil caused by the destruction of the Shang. “He ordered Zhaogong to release the prisoner of Jizi and Biogong to release the prisoner of the people, and he ordered Ma-ye to seal the tomb of Bigan. The “release of the prisoner of Jizi” took place in the 11th year of King Wu, the year the Zhou destroyed the Shang. In that year, Min Zi went east to Korea. So, when did he come to Zhou? The Book of Han – Wu Xing Zhi Qi Shang (The Seventh Book of the Five Elements) reads “but for ten or three sacrifices, the king visited Min Zi”, why do you call it “sacrifice” and not “year”? Because in Zhou it was called “year” and in Shang it was called “sacrifice”. The Book of Books – Book of Zhou – Hong Fan” on the volume said: “In the Zhou and called sacrifice, also Jizi does not serve the meaning of the Zhou.” Shang Shu Doubt – Zhou Shu – Tai Oath” cloud “called the sacrifice not called the year, then King Wu revered the Jizi’s insubordination, respect the Jizi way, so special to the old Shang called it, this sage great justice without my heart.” When is the “ten three sacrifices”? The University of Derivative Righteousness”, Volume 2, says “the thirteenth year of King Wu’s reign”. The “Shang Shu Doubt – Zhou Shu – Tai Oath” “then it is said that there are ten and three sacrifices, is the ten and three sacrifices of Ke Zi was enthroned. These two statements are questionable. In the Book of History – Zhou Benji, “King Wu had already conquered Yin, and two years later, he asked Jizi about the death of Yin, and Jizi could not bear to speak of Yin’s evil, but told him that it was appropriate for him to survive and die. The “latter two years” refers to the second year after the destruction of Shang, that is, the thirteenth year of King Wu. The “thirteenth year of King Wu” and “thirteenth year of King Wu’s reign” are different in substance, “thirteenth year of King Wu’s reign” can be understood as the thirteenth year of King Wu’s succession, while The thirteenth year is the fifteenth year of King Wu (due to the change of nine years to eleven years), which is the fourth year after the destruction of Shang by Zhou, not the “second year”. Min Zi was enthroned in the eleventh year of King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty, who died six years after the completion of the destruction of the Shang Dynasty. In other words, when Jizi was enthroned in the thirteenth year, King Wu had been dead for six years, so how could King Wu have asked Jizi to recount the events of Hongfan?

Archaeological finds

First of all, from the relevant archaeological findings. The myth of Tanjun that the god of heaven descended on Mt. Myohyang in Taeba can be corroborated with the Stone Age of the country. Myohyang Mountain is at the junction of present-day North Pyongan Province, South Pyongan Province and Cigang Province, between the Datong River and the Cheongcheon River. Archaeological findings show that the Neolithic period was justified in the Korean Peninsula from 5000 B.C. to the beginning of 1000 B.C. Most of the typical cultural sites of the Neolithic period were located in South Pyongan Province and North Hwanghae Province, through which the Daejeon River flowed and entered the sea. It was natural for the first people who lived in the plains and valleys to imagine Mount Myohyang as the landing place of their ancestors (gods). Mount Myohyang, just like Mount Olympus in ancient Greece and Mount Tai in ancient China. The myth of Tanjun also says that Tanjun moved into seclusion after the entry of Minako into Joseon, which is an indication that ancient Joseon culture was influenced by Chinese culture and moved from the age of mythology to the age of civilization. The Book of Han says that Min-ja established eight prohibitions, marking the rapid advancement of ancient Joseon society into the civilized era with written laws under the influence of Chinese culture. Archaeological findings can prove this historical record. The Encyclopedia of China – Archaeology says: “The Bronze Age of Korea dates roughly from the 10th to the 5th century B.C. The main sites are in North Pyongan Province and North Hwanghae Province.”” Cultural connections existed with the surrounding areas.” This era coincides with the development of Joseon by the Mino dynasty; the former site of Wangjianseong, the capital of Mino Joseon, also happens to be on the bank of the Datong River in the southern suburbs of Pyongyang.

Moreover, the bronze and branch stone tombs of ancient Korea are the same in shape as those of Liaoning and Shandong in China. The presence of the tomb of Minori in Pyongyang today is not an empty story. Secondly, the myth of the ancient origin of the country. The myth of the origin of the country is basically an oogenetic myth. The ancestor of Goguryeo, Jumong, was born as an ovum; the ancestor of Silla, Park Hyuk Gyuse, was born as an ovum; the king of Silla (surnamed Xie) and Jin Xiongshi were also born as an ovum; the three major royal families of Silla (Park, Xie and Jin) were born as ovums; the six kings of the southern kingdom of Gero were also born as ovums. These myths are inextricably linked to the Chinese myth of oviparity, and there are many Chinese myths of oviparity. The myth and legend of the Manchu people until the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, the fairy swallowed the eggs and gave birth to Nurhachi, the founder of the Qing dynasty (see the “Qing Historical Manuscript – Taizu Benji” and Cai Dongfan’s “Qing History”). According to many scholars, the Dongyi are an important part of the Chinese people. Later, one group moved south along the Bohai Sea and one group migrated to the northeast and reached Korea and Japan. Some people believe that Yu Shun, Yin Shang and Qin Ying were all branches of the Dongyi. Mencius – Li Lou says, “Shun was born in Zhu Feng, moved to Nixia, and died in Ming Jiao, the people of the Eastern Yis.” Even if we don’t classify Yin and Shang and Qin and Ying as Eastern Yis, it is an undeniable fact that they influenced each other with the Eastern Yis. Therefore, from the perspective of the myth of oviparity, the relationship between ancient Korea and the Yin-Shang culture brought by Minzu is very close. Again, from the point of view of surnames and related archaeological findings. The Chinese “Song Shi – Rituals” records that Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty made Jizi the Duke of Liaodong. Luo Ju of the Song Dynasty said in his “History of Roads – Chronicle of State Names” that “Liao was made the state of Ji Zhou” during the reign of Emperor Wu De of the Tang Dynasty. In 1973, a bronze tripod was unearthed in Beidong Village, Kazuo, Liaoning Province in the early Western Zhou Dynasty, and the inscription on the bottom wall of the abdomen has the word “Jihou”. And, when Jizi east to Korea, in the road through Hebei Zheng timing left a descendant, is the source of the later “Xian Yu” compound surname. The customs and traditions of the family name chapter cloud: “King Wu Feng Ji Zi in Joseon, his son food in Joseon, because of the clan.”

The surnames of the Korean peninsula can also be used as proof material. Among the surnames of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea today, there is the Minori surname, and its branches, the Han and Qi surnames, all of whom worship Minori as their ancestor and visit the Sanren Ancestral Hall in Chaoge Town, Qishui County, Henan Province, China, to ask for their roots. Can also be seen from the clothing, ancient calendar, customs and so on. The Korean people like to wear white clothes, which is related to the tradition of the Yin merchants. The Historical Records of the Yin Dynasty says, “Tang changed the correct date and changed the color of his clothes to white.” This shows that the Yin dynasty wore white. According to the Three Kingdoms Records, the ancient Korean country of Fuyu had a tradition of white clothing, with a large white cloth. This tradition has been maintained until now.

The calendar of ancient Korea was also similar to that of Yin and Shang. According to the Three Kingdoms Records – Wei Zhi – Dongyi Zhuan, the region “sacrificed to the heavens in the first month of the year Yin, and the country had a general assembly. The Yin Shang had a custom of killing people for burial, and the Dongyi Zhuan says that in Fuyu, “hundreds of people were killed for burial”. The book also says that the king was blamed for the country’s failure to adjust to droughts and drought. This reminds us of the record of “Lv’s Spring and Autumn Period – Shunmin”: “In the old days, when Tang had overcome Xia and righted the world, there was a great drought and no harvest for five years. Tang prayed to the mulberry forest, saying: ‘I am guilty of one person, but not of ten thousand; ten thousand are guilty of one person. No one person’s insensitivity, so that God ghosts and gods hurt the people’s lives.’ So …… sacrificed his body and used to pray for blessings to God. The people were very happy.”” The people were very pleased” means that the people thought it was right for Tang to do so, otherwise it was not right, that is to say, they blamed Tang for the drought. Moreover, the “Three Kingdoms” says that many inhabitants of the peninsula claim to be “ancient dead” from China.

Historical, archaeological, surname, mythology, folklore, all aspects match with each other to confirm the development of ancient Korea by Minzu and the remnants of Yin Shang.

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