The Hongshan culture is centered on the middle tributaries of the Liaohe River basin, the Siramushi River, the Laohar River and the Daling River, with a distribution area of 200,000 square kilometers, about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago, and lasting for as long as 2,000 years. The social form of the Hongshan culture was in the heyday of matrilineal clan society at the beginning, and the main social structure was a tribal group linked by female blood groups, and gradually transitioned to patrilineal clans in the late period. The economic form is mainly agriculture, but also pastoralism, fishing and hunting coexist. The remains of the Neolithic culture are characterized by the coexistence of distinctive colored pottery and zigzag pattern pottery, as well as fine stone tools.
Before the Hongshan Culture (4700-2900 B.C.) was the Xinglongwa Culture (6200-5400 B.C.), the Xinle Culture (5300-4800 B.C.), and the Zhao Baogou Culture (4500-4000 B.C.), and after the Hongshan Culture was the Xiaoheyan Culture and the Xiajiadian Lower Culture (2000-1000 B.C.). The Hongshan culture is divided into early, middle and late stages, the early stage is about 6,500-6,000 years ago, which is the gestation and formation period of Hongshan culture; the middle stage is about 6,000-5,500 years ago, when Hongshan culture entered the prosperous period; the late stage is 5,500-5,000 years ago, when Hongshan culture entered the heyday.
Among them, the Late Red Mountain Culture from 3300 to 3000 B.C. is an important dividing line, in which the prehistoric society in western Liaoning has undergone significant changes in settlement form, economic form, burial customs, primitive religious beliefs, handicraft differentiation, technology level and cultural exchange, and has entered the primary civilized society.
Phases and Types
With the further clarification of the basic features of the Hongshan culture and the deepening of field archaeology, some new materials were discovered one after another, making certain regional, temporal and category differences between the different remains of the Hongshan culture apparently reflected.
Some scholars in the mid-1980s have expressed their views on the issue of phasing and the division of local types. They also made a systematic analysis of the remains of the Red Mountain culture, which were distributed in different regions and in different locations of the sites. For example, the Nei Meng Nai Manda Qintala site is located in the sand dunes, with many fine stone tools and no colored pottery. Aohan Siliang Mountain site is located high on the slope of the mountain, and there is very little colored pottery. About 30 kilometers from Siliang Mountain, the site of Sandao Bay, located near the river low terrace, the excavation of colored pottery significantly increased. Another Daling River basin is mostly seen in jar-shaped cylinder and line belly basin, no red-topped bowl.
Some scholars are depending on the amount of excavated material, combined with other cultural factors and other different features of the Red Mountain culture into three types: 1, Xinglongwa F133 remains. At present, only in Aohan Bao Guo Tu Township Xinglongwa site has a small number of discoveries. 2, West Water Spring type. Chifeng Xishuiquan site as the representative, after excavation and Chifeng Red Mountain, Spider Mountain and Aohan Sandao Bay and other sites. 3, Dongshanzui type. Excavated sites in addition to the Dongshanzui, there are Niuheliang, Chengzishan, Hutougou, etc.. Some people also start from the typical artifacts of the Red Mountain culture classification row combination, ranking the Red Mountain culture sites in the period. According to this combination of the row in the Red Mountain Culture early sites are Haijinshan, Chifeng Spider Mountain. In the early, middle and late stages of the whole site are right banner Nastai, Nayman Banner Dachintala, Chifeng Red Mountain after. Sites in the early and middle stages are Chifeng Xishuiquan. Sites in the early and late stages include Aohan Siliang Mountain. Sites in the middle stage include Aohan Sandaowanzi. In the middle and late stages are Chengzi Mountain and Jinzhou Shabotun. In the late stage are Fuxin Hutougou, Kazuo Dongshanzui, Lingyuan Niuheliang site.
The Red Mountain culture is located in the interface between the Northeast Plain and the Mongolian Plateau, and its distribution area includes the north and south of the Yanshan Mountains and the Great Wall area at the junction of Liaoning, Inner Mongolia and Hebei, mainly concentrated in the watershed of the Dushui and Tu rivers in the upper reaches of the Xiliao River, with a distribution area of 200,000 square kilometers. Important sites include Chifeng Red Mountain, Chifeng Spider Mountain, Chifeng West Water Spring, Wengniut Banner Samsung Tara, Linxi Shawozi, Balingyu Banner Nastai, Balinzuo Banner suburbs, Weichang Xiahuofang, Aohan Xiaowu, Naiman Banner, Jinxi Shapotun, Fuxin Hutougou, Fuxin Fuxingdi, Kazuo Dongshanzui, Kazuo New Yingzi, Niu Lianghe, Chaoyang Twelve Tai Yingzi, Beipiao Baishi Reservoir, Kangping suburbs, Xiaoheyan, etc.
Hongshan Ruins Group
The Hongshan site group is located at the northern foot of Hongshan Mountain, 3 km northeast of Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia. The Red Mountain site group has 2 Red Mountain culture settlement sites, 2 Xiagadian lower culture ritual sites, 2 Xiagadian lower culture and Xiagadian upper superimposed culture settlement sites, 2 Xiagadian upper culture sarcophagus cemeteries, 1 Red Mountain post site excavated by the Japanese in 1935, and 1 mountain front site investigated and test excavated by Beijing University archaeology students and teachers in 1956.
On May 25, 2006, the State Council of the People’s Republic of China announced the Red Mountain site group as the sixth batch of national key protection units.
Niuheliang Site is located in Chaoyang City, Liaoning Province, and is an important site group of the late Red Mountain Culture, about 5,500 years ago.
Baiyin Changkhan Site
Baiyin Changhan Site is located in Baiyin Changhan Village, Shuangjingdian Township, Linxi County, Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia. discovered in 1986 and excavated three times in 1988, 1989 and 1991.
The Xinglonggou site is located in the village of Xinglonggou, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, and was excavated three times between 2001 and 2003 by the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, with three sites belonging to the Xinglongwa Culture, the Hongshan Culture, and the Xiajiadian Lower Culture settlement site.
Red Mountain, meaning “red mountain”, is located in the northeastern suburbs of Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia, on the banks of the Yingjin River. Legend has it that the Red Mountain in Chifeng was originally called “Nine Girls Mountain”. In ancient times, nine fairies broke the rules of the sky, the Queen Mother of the West was furious, nine fairies panicked, accidentally knocked over the rouge box, rouge spilled on the banks of the Yingjin River, thus appearing nine red peaks. In the Mongolian-Yuan Dynasty, the Mongolians called it Ulan Hada, which translates to “red mountain peaks” in Chinese. Therefore, it was later called “Red Mountain”.
At the beginning of the 20th century, when China was in the era of warlords, a Japanese scholar named Torii Ryuuzo was hired by the local Karachin Mongolian princes to give lectures. According to the Japanese recollection, that year he crossed Liao Shangjing (today’s Bahrain Left Banner) and came to Red Mountain, where he found some pottery shards on the ground nearby. In 1919, a Frenchman named Sang Zhihua came. He came to Linxi County, Jehol Province, and returned without finding anything. In the winter of 1930, Liang Siyong, the son of Liang Qichao, who was born in Macao and returned from studying in the United States, started to study archaeology, and after collecting some information about Torii Longzang, he joined the archaeological group of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and went to the area of Linxi, Shalahai and Pottinger Mountain, and found only some After finding only some pottery shards, he returned to Beijing.
In 1933, the Japanese imperialists occupied Chengde, the capital of Jehol province at that time. Then came a group of so-called Japanese archaeological working group, called the Manchurian expedition. There was a man named Hamada, who was the president of Tokyo University back then. They came with the motive: to conquer China, must first conquer Manchuria. Want to find out in the northern part of the Jehol Mongolian region does not belong to the Chinese historical and cultural credentials. The result. In the red mountain more than 30 sites only found some pottery fragments and a few bronze, all belong to the Chinese historical relics, so that the Japanese invasion in vain.
After liberation, Mr. Liang Siyong was the deputy director of the Chinese Institute of Archaeology and Mr. Yin Da, a Chinese archaeologist, published a book “Neolithic Culture of China” with Mr. Liang as the preface. According to Mr. Yin Da, the Hongshan Culture is a combination of the Northern Fine Stone Ware Culture and the Yangshao Culture. The two scholars discussed this cultural phenomenon in the northeast, which is a new cultural phenomenon arising from the contact between the north and south of the Great Wall, and proposed the name “Hongshan Culture”.
In May 1971, a large carved jasper dragon was accidentally unearthed in the village of Sanxingtala, Zhaowuda League, Wengniut Banner, Liaoning Province, while planting trees in the North Mountain. Since then, people began to realize that the origin of Chinese jade carving art might be in the Western Liaohe River basin during the Red Mountain Culture era. Soon afterwards, several batches of jade carvings of the Red Mountain culture, such as carved dragons and large hooked cloud pearls, were found in the remains of the Red Mountain culture in Aohan Banner Gulupanxia, Keshiketeng Banner Goodluku Shibanshan, and Fuxin Hutougou.
In May 1979, archaeologists found jade tombs of the Hongshan culture with scientific stratigraphic basis in Chengzi Mountain, Sanguandian, Lingyuan City, Liaoning Province, thus making it conclusive that there were jade artifacts of the Hongshan culture. Lei Guangzhen, a professor of history, found that the totems of the Yellow Emperor (bears, dragons, turtles, clouds, birds, etc.) recorded in ancient Chinese literature all correspond to the jade vessels of the Hongshan culture. These totemic jades reflect the production, life, fertility and living conditions of the ancestors of Hongshan 5,500 years ago, while jade dragons and jade phoenixes are the most revered jade objects in Hongshan. Lei Guangzhen about Niuheliang Red Mountain jade culture in the international forum after the presentation, attracted the attention of experts attending the meeting.
Lei Guangzhen said, according to ancient documents, the Yellow Emperor Totem mainly has five kinds: one is the bear. The “Historical Records” said, “The Yellow Emperor as a bear.” Ban Gu compiled the “white tiger general” also said: “the yellow emperor has the world, the number said there bear.” In the archaeological excavation of the Red Mountain Cultural Site in Niuheliang, Chaoyang, not only the jaws of the bear and the remnants of the bear’s palm were unearthed in clay, but also the double bear’s head with three holes was unearthed in jade. The second is the dragon, “History” said “Xuan Yuan, the yellow dragon body”. Mr. Wen Yiduo believes that the ancient Ji Tong female and Tong Si, and Si is a large snake, this large snake is also known as the dragon, the Yellow Emperor tribe as a totem. Hongshan culture snake-shaped dragon jade, from Xinglongwa, Chahai site of jade penannular jade, to Wengniut Banner Samsung Tara site of jade dragon, has formed a series. The third is the turtle, and the “State Language” says “I Ji’s came from the sky softshell turtle”. Mr. Guo Moruo believes that the totem of the Yellow Emperor is the Tiansozi, or the divine turtle. In the Niuheliang site many times excavated the turtle jade and jade turtle shell. Fourth, clouds, the Red Mountain culture hooked cloud-shaped jade, part of the shape may be related to clouds. Fifth is the bird, the “State Language” records that the sons of the Yellow Emperor’s twelve surnames, there are “human-faced bird body”, may be a bird as a totem. In the burial site of Niuheliang Red Mountain Culture, jade birds were indeed unearthed.
Among the famous Neolithic prehistoric cultures in China, only the Hongshan culture (mainly jade) has so many fits with the Yellow Emperor. What is the real meaning of all these fits? According to Lei Guangzhen, the totemic jades of the Hongshan culture reflect the “four lives” of the ancestors of Hongshan in terms of production, life, fertility and spirituality. It can be said that every piece of jade of Hongshan culture is a reflection of “four lives”.
Huangdi many totems, which is the common worship of society, thus becoming a common totem? From the literature, one is the dragon, two is the phoenix. From the unearthed jade objects are also the same: the snake as the prototype of the dragon, the owl as the prototype of the phoenix, composed of jade dragon, jade phoenix series. It can be inferred from this that the dragon and the phoenix were the highest totems of the Huangdi clan, and that the jade dragon and jade phoenix were the most revered jade objects in Hongshan.
The study of the origin of the Red Mountain culture is one of the most striking research results after the founding of the country, especially in recent decades. There are roughly five opinions in the academic community: First, the Hongshan culture is a primitive culture of the Yangshao culture system, or a variant of the Yangshao culture. Second, the Red Mountain culture inherited the Hebei Magyama culture. Third, the Red Mountain culture is likely to be a new culture after the interaction of the fine stone tool culture and Yangshao culture, containing fine stone tools and Yangshao culture two factors; Fourth, the Red Mountain culture is a unique characteristics of this region of a new stone tool culture. It has its own development process. At the same time, it was influenced by other cultures. Fifth, the Hongshan culture is probably the continuation and development of the Hemudu culture and the turning point of the Chinese nation from matrilineal clan society to patrilineal society.
Archaeology reveals that the coexistence of clay pottery, colored pottery, embossed “zhi” pattern sandwich pottery, stone tools and fine stone tools is a unique feature of the Hongshan culture. The dragon motif is the most representative element of the Hongshan culture, and this “clan emblem” pattern continued from the early period of the Hongshan culture to its late period. The painted clay pottery is also the most representative artifact, and although influenced by the Yangshao culture of the Central Plains, there are still differences and similarities between the two (commonality and individuality). Yangshao culture painted pottery decoration is decorated with black, purple or white, compared with the type of pottery after the Red Mountain is colorful, with circular vortex pattern, leaf pattern, oblique lattice pattern and rope pattern, and separately with “S” type, “X” type and other decorations. It is very different from the post-Hongshan type pottery. In the post-Hongshan type pottery, the continuous dotted arc pattern is a falling form, which is not in the Yangshao culture pottery. There are also similarities between the two, the Red Mountain culture after the type of “red bowl” type bowl and the Yangshao culture after the post type of similar colored pottery, colored pottery among the parallel line shape, parallel diagonal line triangle pattern and after the post type of similar colored pottery, their similarities and differences, indicating their cultural characteristics. Their similarities (or similar) indicate that the age is generally similar, but it cannot be simply assumed that the Hongshan culture is a branch of Yangshao culture, local variants or mixed culture, etc. The connotation of Hongshan culture is also not single in the Western Liaoning River basin, and it includes different cultural characteristics of different economic types. Different local types or different stages of development. The remains of Hongshan culture in the Daling River basin, such as Dongshanzui, Niuheliang, Chengzishan site, Hutougou jade tomb, are different from the remains of Hongshan culture in the Laoha River basin, such as Hou Hongshan, Xishuiquan and Siliang Mountain. The “red-topped bowl” type of pottery and the triangular inter-vortex pattern of painted pottery.
Artifacts this shows that the formation of the Hongshan culture is never a single farming, but mainly farming, agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing and hunting combined economic type and diverse cultural connotations contributed. The new archaeological findings provide a basis for us to reveal the development pattern and nature of the Hongshan culture. The development of the Red Mountain culture was mainly its own, and intercultural influences had played a “catalytic” role. The cultural influence was first of all the mutual influence of “all cultures” in the distribution area of the Hongshan culture. The influence with the Central Plains culture was not unilateral, but mutual. A certain point of view that there are two major cultural systems in prehistoric China, namely, the ancient culture of the Central Plains and the ancient culture of the North, which is composed of the Red Mountain culture and the Hetao culture, these two cultural systems have commonalities and individuality, the ancient culture of the North can not simply be seen as a branch of the ancient culture of the Central Plains or local variants. To recognize the origin of the Hongshan culture, the first task is to find remains in the region that predate the Hongshan culture, and only after the excavation of the Xinglongwa site in 1983 was the culture clearly recognized, so that the origin of the Hongshan culture could be explored with a solid object of comparison. The early and middle houses of the Red Mountain Culture were found to break the stratigraphic relationship of the settlement enclosure of the Xinglongwa Culture, and have the characteristics of the early lithic culture remains. The C14 dated 7470+80 – 6895+-205 years ago, which is much earlier than the Hongshan Culture, and is related to the predecessor of the Hongshan Culture, can be called the “Pre-Hongshan Culture”. The Xinglongwa culture and the Red Mountain culture are distributed in roughly the same area. The early Red Mountain culture and Xinglongwa culture pottery is mostly coarse and sparse, the fire is more bottom ware and less variety of decoration, generally sandwich brown pottery cylinder jar, coarse clay (including fine sand) pottery bowl, representative decoration is embossed “of” line pattern, as well as grid-like scratch pattern. It can be seen that the early Red Mountain culture is richer than the Xinglongwa culture, and shows a certain degree of progress. The dragon pattern pottery pieces excavated from the Chahai site of the Xinglongwa culture have the basic characteristics of ancient Chinese dragon figures. The large stone dragon is the earliest and largest dragon figure found in China to date. It has a direct influence on the dragon shape of the Hongshan culture. The Xinglongwa culture had a certain level of agricultural production and a considerable scale and number of settlement sites. It can be considered as the basis for a prosperous primitive agricultural society like the Hongshan culture. This suggests that the Xinglongwa culture has a heritage relationship with the Hongshan culture and may be the source of the Hongshan culture.
Life in general
The Red Mountain Culture dates back to about 5,000 years ago and is comparable to the middle and late Yangshao culture. The ancestors of the Hongshan culture had not only the custom of deep burial, but also the custom of cremation and sky burial.
Living on both sides of the Xilamuren River, the Red Mountain culture tribal group, living a relatively stable agricultural economy, has found more clan living camp sites. Daling River upstream down the north bank of the river Aohan Banner He Fu Yingzi village, there is a Red Mountain culture clan tribes, two better-preserved trenches will be the tribal sites are enclosed into two parts of the immediate vicinity, that is, two clans. The southeastern trench is more than 600 meters in circumference and is irregularly rectangular in shape, with an access point for people on the southeast side of the trench. In the northwestern clan, the trench has only three sides, and the area of the encircled settlement camp is smaller, and the other side is a section of the trench of the southeastern clan. The discovery of this Red Mountain culture clan camp provides an example of the scale and defensive trenches of the Middle Neolithic clan tribes in western Liaoning, and it can be seen that such facilities are basically the same as those of the Yangshao culture Hanpo clan tribes. The ancestors of the Hongshan culture were a settled tribe with an agricultural economy and an economic life of animal husbandry and fishing and hunting. In the handicraft production, pottery industry occupies an important position. Pottery making technology has been more developed than the early Xinglongwa culture. Some clan members with rich experience in pottery making have specialized in this labor, and large quantities of pottery have the similarity of batch processing. The production and quality of pottery have improved significantly. On the east bank of Laoha River, south of Aohan Banner Baisrang Yingzi Village, on the undulating sand dunes in front of Siliang Mountain, there is a kiln site of Red Mountain Culture, and archaeologists excavated and cleaned out six kiln sites. From these kilns with different structures and the excavated pottery, the pottery industry was already of a large scale.
Agriculture, livestock rearing, hunting, and wild fruit gathering were the livelihoods of the people. There are different types of production tools, including beaten stone tools, ground stone tools and fine stone tools; there are a large number of agricultural tools, including stone Lei (lěi) 耜 (si), stone plow, stone hoe, etc.
Pottery of Hongshan culture is divided into two kinds of clay red pottery and sand-clad gray pottery. The fine clay colored pottery is used for cooking, and the sand-clamped delineated coarse pottery is used to carry food. In addition, there are some pregnant women pottery statues. Hongshan culture has not developed with Yangshao culture similar to the color pottery culture, but with the local later Longshan culture black pottery shape somewhat similar. The Hongshan culture has sites located in the grasslands on the river banks, while the ritual sites and cemeteries are located in the hills and woodlands. Realistic animal and female clay sculptures have been found at the ritual sites, suggesting a matriarchal society at the time.
Animal-shaped jade carvings are very elaborate, mainly in the shapes of pigs, tigers, birds and dragons, and the level of craftsmanship is extremely high, which is a major feature of the Hongshan culture. The jade dragons of the Hongshan culture were very simple, often just a circle, and looked very primitive compared to the later ones, such as the coiled dragons and the decorated dragons. At that time, the worship of “dragons” was widespread in all regions, indicating that there were important commonalities among the cultures of ancient China.
The Red Mountain Jade Dragon is C-shaped, with a wild boar-like head, a back with a mane-like shape and an upturned tail, and no decoration on its entire body, and is prohibited from being exhibited outside China.
At that time, it also produced polished stoneware, red pottery and gray pottery with geometric decorative patterns. Since most Neolithic jade objects do not have surface decoration, the carved and decorated jade objects of the Hongshan culture are particularly striking. Hongshan jade objects are mainly in the shape of various animals, jade beads, jade rings, pendants, jade biscuits, etc.
Niuheliang sixteenth place No. 4 tomb jade man
Chahai site after excavation unearthed jade penannular jade, jade dagger, tube-shaped ware, such as axe-like adze-shaped ware, etc.. Successive discoveries include: jade turtle, jade owl, jade bird, jade biscuit, jade ring, fish-shaped jade pendant and joint-ring jade biscuit excavated from Fuxin Hutougou burial site.
Horseshoe-shaped jade, jade battle-axe, jade ring, jade ornament with hook and cloud pattern, jade cicada, jade ornament in the shape of bamboo knot, jade ornament with pig’s head found in the burial area of Sanguandianzi, Lingyuan.
Jade ring, double-linked jade bi, horseshoe-shaped jade hoop, jade pig dragon, jade bi, square jade ornament, stick-shaped jade, hooked cloud-shaped jade ornament found in Niuheliang cumulus mound group in Jianping County.
The double dragon head jade juan and turquoise bird-shaped pendant excavated from the Kazuo Dongshanzui site; jade silkworm, jade pig dragon, jade phoenix, hooked cloud-shaped jade pendant, jade owl, fish-shaped jade ornament, triple jade biscuit,, jade axe, jade pipe, etc. found at the Nastai site in Balin Right Banner.
In addition, in Chaoyang City and Aohan Banner and Wengniut Banner in Chifeng City, there are also jade dragons, jade aunts, jade birds, horseshoe-shaped jade hoops, hooked cloud pattern jade ornaments, jade axes, jade rods and other jade artifacts of various forms found, and the number is considerable.
New discoveries have been made in the Hongshan culture, with the discovery of a temple to the god of cattle, a cumulus mound and an altar in Niuheliang, at the junction of Dongshanzui, Kazuo County, and Lingyuan and Jianping in Liaoning Province, and the discovery of a well-preserved ritual site of the Xiajiadian Lower Culture after Hongshan in 2003. The Red Mountain site group was announced as a national key protection unit by the State Council in 2006. The Hongshan culture has an important historical value. The discovery of the Hongshan culture has made the Xilamushi River basin, along with the Yellow River basin and the Yangtze River basin, the three major sources of Chinese civilization; the Hongshan culture and the Liangzhu culture are the two major centers of ancient Chinese jade culture.
The Hongshan culture was a developed civilization distributed in the western Liaoning River basin at the same time as the Yangshao culture of the Central Plains, and it was a diversified culture that emerged from the intersection with the Yangshao culture of the Central Plains in its development. The Hongshan culture comprehensively reflects the characteristics and connotations of the Neolithic culture of northern China. Subsequently, sites with similar or identical cultural characteristics to the Chifeng Hongshan site were found in neighboring areas, collectively referred to as the Hongshan culture. Nearly a thousand sites belonging to this cultural system have been discovered and identified throughout the western part of Liaoning. It is rich in connotations and possesses a large number of vivid and charmingly shaped jade objects with animal figures such as pigs, turtles, birds, cicadas and fish. With the identification of this collection of jade in the 1970s, archaeologists discovered a large jade dragon of the Hongshan culture at Samsung Tara in Wengniut Banner, Chifeng.
Northeast civilization originated 1 million years ago at the Wangfu site in Qianguo, Jilin, followed by the Miao Houshan culture 40 or 500,000 years ago, the Jinniushan and Pigeonhole cultures 20 or 300,000 years ago, ancient humans such as Qingtoushan Man, Yushu Man, Antu Man, Harbin Man, and Qianyang Man 5 to 10,000 years ago, the Hailar Zaranor Man 9,000 years ago, the Xinle Lower Culture in Shenyang 7,000 years ago, 6,000 to 7,000 years ago of Jilin Da’an County Changxin Nanshan site, Liaodong Peninsula Xiaozhu Shan culture, 6000 years ago Hailar Xishagang culture, Angangxi culture, Mishan Xinkailiu culture, Raohe Xiao Nanshan culture, 5000 to 6000 years ago Changchun clan tribes, Nayman Banner Dachintala site, lower Holin River Neolithic sites, Xiliaohe Red Mountain culture, Northeast culture passed on, is the later formation of the Shang, the It is the common civilization origin of the Shang, Su Shen, Dong Hu, and Filthy Moraek (Fuyu, Goguryeo) and other Northeastern peoples and tribes.
On October 16, 2014, researchers from the Inner Mongolia Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, through the study of the Red Mountain Culture human statues and the identification of the bones of the Red Mountain Culture inhabitants at the Niuheliang site, can tentatively identify the ancestors of the Red Mountain Culture, who lived from 6,700 to 5,000 years ago respectively, as the North Chinese Asian race and the traditional Mongolian people. The western political science of the Mongolian race (the West in the 19th century the yellow race is defined as a Mongolian race, not a narrow sense of Mongolian people) in the North China race. A number of “Red Mountain Culture” figures, such as the clay statue of the Goddess Temple excavated from the Niuheliang site, share common facial features, namely, a square, round, flat face, a flat forehead, an inconspicuous eyebrow arch, shallow eye sockets, a low, flat and short nose, raised cheekbones, thin and long lips, and a flat face with little undulation, with the facial features of the Mongolian race. Archaeologists believe that the physical characteristics of the cranium of the famous Red Mountain culture site – Niuheliang site Red Mountain culture inhabitants are higher cranial shape, narrow forehead, broad and flat frontal face, etc., belong to the Asian Mongolian race.
Thousands of Red Mountain Culture sites have been discovered, and more than 30 Red Mountain Culture figures have been found. From the position of the figures and burial objects unearthed in the tombs, it can be seen that the ancestors of the “Hongshan culture” had their hair pulled back into a bun, and women had headbands and ornaments on their heads; men wore crowns on their heads, ear ornaments under their ear lobes, jade penannular jade pieces on their ears, jade beads on ropes falling under their ears, neck ornaments, jade bracelets on their wrists, belt-like leather cords around their waists, and half-waisted flat boots under their feet. The half-waisted flat-soled boots were worn. It has the characteristics of typical early Chinese civilization.