Kyushu –JiuZhou


Kyushu, also known as Handi, Zhongdi, Shenzhou, and Twelve States, first appeared in the pre-Qin dynasty text “Shangshu – Yugong”, and has been a national geographical concept of the Chinese Han ancestors since ancient times. Since the Warring States period, Kyushu has become a synonym for ancient China, and since the Han Dynasty, it has become a synonym for the Han region, also known as “Hanji Kyushu”.


Source Initial

“The term “Kyushu” was first used in the Yugong, where it is said that in ancient times, when the Great Yu was ruling the waters, he divided the world into nine states (there is also a theory that the Yellow Emperor created “Kyushu”), and thus Kyushu became synonymous with the ancient Han region. The division of the nine states into regional areas was also different. The ancients believed that the sky was round and the earth was round, and that the word ‘square’ referred to its extent. Thus, the term ‘Kyushu is square and round’ means ‘this part of China’. It means that the area of China is a vast and majestic place.

 The Xia Shu – Yugong (The Book of the Summer) in the Shang Shu records that at the time of the Great Yu the world was divided into ‘nine states’, namely Yu, Qing, Xu, Yang, Jing, Liang, Yong, Ji and Yan. The area of the Kyushu, as described in the Yugong, extended from the Yanshan Mountains, Bohai Bay and Liaodong in the north, South China Sea,  west to Gansu bordering the West, and east to the East Sea. The nine states were also a plan for the future unification of the country by scholars of the time, reflecting a political ideal of theirs.

The Zizhi Tongjian waiji says that “Yu resumed his work for the Kyushu region and collected the beautiful bronze of the world and cast it into nine tripods to resemble the Kyushu region”.

Yuzhou, the name of an ancient Chinese geographical region, refers to one of the nine states described in the Han text Yugong. It is also known as Zhongzhou because it is located in the middle of the nine states. Most of the present-day Henan province belongs to Yuzhou, hence the abbreviation “Yu”.

 Of these, Jizhou was extremely large, according to Marong said, “Yu pacified the water and land and set up nine states. Shun took the vast area to the north of Jizhou and divided it into the state of Bing. Yan and Qi were far away, so he divided Yan into Youzhou and Qi into Yingzhou. Thus were the twelve states.” In other words, the states of Pingzhou, Youzhou and Yingzhou were divided from Jizhou, and together with the original nine states, they are sometimes called the twelve states.

Twelve states: Ji, Yan, Qing, Yong, Yu, Xu, Liang, Jing and Yang

Instead of Qing and Liang, there are You and Ying, as recorded in the Erya – Interpretation of the Earth.

 The Zhou Rites – Change of Officials – Vocation of the Fang Clan has no Liang or Xu, but rather You and Ping, because King Wu of Zhou After the destruction of the Yin Shang, Xu Prefecture was merged into Qing Prefecture and Liang Prefecture into Yong Prefecture, and the land of Jizhou was used to divide up Bing Prefecture and You Prefecture.

Exploring the origins

 The name Jiuzhou has been used for a long time. Literally, the Chinese character for ‘state’ in Jin is written as ‘A’, resembling the shape of a plateau (hill) surrounded by rivers, and in the Eleventh Book of Shuowen Jiezi, it is said: “When water can be inhabited, it is said to be a state.” It is clear that the original meaning is the same as that inThe Book of Psalms -The word “Zhou” in the phrase “in the continent of the river” in Wang Feng Guan Ju is slightly similar and has nothing to do with administrative divisions. In ancient times, when precipitation was abundant, people often lived on high hills near the water. The name ‘zhou’ became the name of the area where people lived, and there were thus ‘xia zhou’, ‘rong zhou’, ‘ping zhou’, ‘yang zhou’ and ‘yang zhou’. “Yangzhou’, ‘Waizhou’, ‘Guazhou’, ‘Shuzhou’, ‘Zuozhu’ and ‘Zuobing’. The name “Zuozhu Bing” is similar to “Shangqiu”, “Yongqiu” and “Zuozhu Jia”. The word “Jiu” has two meanings: one is a definite reference, such as “Jiu” in the phrase “in the middle of eight years, nine vassals”; the other is an imaginary reference, meaning many, such as “nine mountains “, “Jiuchuan”, “Jiuze”, “Jiuyuan”, “Jiuyuan”, “Jiuyuan”, etc. The “Jiu” of “Jiu”. The “Jiu” is a very small geographical presence, and “the vast traces of the Yus are drawn into the nine states”. It is possible that the word ‘nine’ is a precise, rather than an imaginary, reference. Therefore, in its original meaning, “Kyushu” is a generic term for nine large geographical and humanistic regions, as well as for the many highlands (hills) surrounded by rivers; by virtue of the people, it is also a synonym for “the whole country”, as in “the world “The name of the region is also a generic term for the many highlands (hills) surrounded by rivers.

 In later times, “Kyushu” was finally concretized into nine large administrative divisions. As the specific ‘Kyushu’ is only found in the Warring States, but not in  the Spring and Autumn period .It is possible that it dates from the early Warring States period. The Yugong, although attributed to Dayu, was actually written in the late Warring States period. There is much concrete evidence for this, the main reason being that many of the geographical conditions recorded in the Yugong are phenomena of the Warring States period.

 The Zhou Rites – Xia Guan – Jifang Shi says: “Southeast is Yangzhou”, “South is Jingzhou”, “Henan is Yuzhou”, “East is Qingzhou “, “east of the river is Yanzhou”, “west of the river is Yongzhou”, “northeast of the river is Youzhou”, “henei is Jizhou “, and “Zhengbei is called Bingzhou”. (Book of Yi Zhou -Juang Jiao Fang Jie‖ is identical to the Zhouli, and considering that the Zhouli is more systematic, it is likely that the Yi Zhou Shu was copied from the Zhouli.)

 The Lü’s Spring and Autumn -What is the meaning of Kyushu? Between the river and the Han is the state of Yu, also known as Zhou. Between the two rivers is the state of Jizhou, which is also known as Jin. Between the River and the Han is the state of Yan, which is also known as Wei. In the east is Qingzhou, which is also known as Qi. In the east is Qingzhou, also known as Qi, and in the south is Xuzhou, also known as Lu. To the south-east is Yangzhou, also known as Yue. To the south is the state of Jing, also known as Chu. To the west is the state of Yong, also known as Qin. To the north is the state of You, also known as Yan.”

Shang Shu – Yu Gong: “Ji Zhou”, “Ji and River but Yan Zhou”, “Hai and Dai but Qing Zhou”, “Hai, Dai and Huai but Xu Zhou “, “Huai and Hai but Yangzhou”, “Jing and Hengyang but Jingzhou”, “Jing and He but Yuzhou”, “Huayang and Heshui but Liangzhou”, “Heshui and Xihe but Yongzhou”.

The “Erya – Interpretation of the Earth” says: “Between the two rivers is said to be Jizhou, Henan is said to be Yuzhou, west of the river is said to be Luzhou, south of the Han is said to be Jingzhou, south of the river is said to be Yangzhou, between the Ji River is said to be Yanzhou, east of the Ji is said to be Xuzhou, Yan is said to be Youzhou, Qi is said to be Yingzhou: nine states.”

 Huainanzi – Topography -What are the nine states? The southeastern Shenzhou is called Nongtu, the southern sub-state is called Fertiletu, the southwestern Rongzhou is called Taotu, the western Trapzhou is called Bingtu, the central Jizhou is called Zhongtu, the northwestern Taizhou is called Fertilizer, the northern Zhouzhou is called Chengtu, the northeastern Bozhou is called Hiddentu, and the eastern Yangzhou is called Shentu.”

The Book of Later Han – Zhang Heng’s Biography, quotes the He Tu as saying: “There are nine divisions and eight periods in the sky, and eight pillars in the earth. The southeastern Shenzhou is called the Morning Earth, the southern Angzhou is called the Deep Earth, the southwestern Rongzhou is called the Tao Earth, the western Trapzhou is called the Kai Earth, the central Jizhou is called the White Earth, the northwestern Pillarzhou is called the Fat Earth, the northern Xuanzhou is called the Cheng Earth, the northeastern Xianzhou is called the Hidden Earth, and the eastern Yangzhou is called the Xin Earth.”

The First Book of Learning, Volume 8 – The Ministry of Counties – General Descriptions – Counties – The first quotation from the He Tu Zu Di Xiang says: “There are nine channels in the sky and nine states on earth. There are nine divisions in heaven and eight periods in the earth, and eight pillars in Kyushu. The marketplace of Kunlun, the lower cave contains the right; the state of Chixian is the central rule. The southeast is called Shenzhou, the south is called Yingzhou a sub-state, the southwest is called Rongzhou, the west is called Gaozhou, the centre is called Jizhou, the northwest is called Pillarzhou a bracket state, the north is called Xuanzhou a Gongzhou, also called Qizhou, the northeast is called Xianzhou a thin state, the east is called Yangzhou.”

Although the above material is closely related, the differences are also obvious, especially between the first four articles and the last three. For example, each of these articles contains the word trap (or yanzhou, the characters for trap and yan are common. The first four articles are located between Ji and He, while the last three are located in the “west”; the same is true of Jizhou and Yangzhou (Yangzhou and Yangzhou). So the above material should basically be divided into two schools: the first four articles are one school, which can be tentatively called the “Zhouli” school; the last three articles are one school, which can be tentatively called the “He Tu” school.

 Although there are slight differences between the various schools of the Zhou Rites, the area covered by the “Kyushu” school is basically consistent with the ruling area of the Han and Jin dynasties.Zhou Dynasty It is easy to understand and there is not much doubt about the distribution of the states as they were in the Han and Jin dynasties, but it is the Hetu school that has the most doubts. The most doubtful point is the Hetu school, which says that the “Western Trap” was in the western part of Shandong (or between Ji and He), as it was in ancient times and still is today. In addition, the eight states of the He Tu school are distributed in eight directions determined by the southeast and northwest, with Jizhou in the centre.

 Someone else has also written an article arguing that the first Xia and Xia clans, which began with the Yellow Emperor, may have originated in Shandong and gradually moved westwards to Henan in the middle and late Xia dynasty. If this view is valid, then all the doubts of the He Tu school can be resolved. If Yu’s activities, such as water management, were confined to Shandong, with the exception of Jiaodong, then the Kyushu (false reference) drawn on the basis of the vast Yu trail would naturally be confined to Shandong. Later (in the early Warring States period) Kyushu was made more specific, and if the truth were understood (and there are many who do not know the truth, e.g. Zuo Zhuan – The Year of Zhao A.D.), scholars would still confine it to Shandong and look for it within Shandong to determine that it is present-day Yanzhou. There is a mountain called Gansu Mountain 30 miles west of the present day city, probably because there is the Am State in the vicinity, so Gansu Mountain is also known as Ã’ling Mountain and Am Mountain, which is where the sun enters in mythology. There is a god on it, called Shanhaijing -The Great Wilderness West Sutra: “There is a god in the West Sea islet …… named Trap.” The West Sea is the ancient Danoze, west of the Gansu Mountains. This is where the name Trap originates from; Taizhou (or is erroneously referred to as Brackets and Pillars), the Liezi -The Yellow Emperor says: “The country of the Huaxu clan is west of Yanzhou and north of Taizhou.” It is difficult to verify the origin of the land. It may be said to have originated in the ancient county of Taizhou, but in the General History of Shandong, Volume 33 – Territory – Antiquities I – Jinan Province – Licheng County, the article says: “The ancient city of Taizhou, eighty miles east of the county, was established in the spring and autumn as a Qiyi town, and in the Han Dynasty as a county, belonging to Jinan County. In the sixth year of Emperor Gao’s reign, he made Dai Ye, a lieutenant of the Eastern County, the Marquis of Tai.” It is 30 miles northeast of the present-day Jinan City, but the words Tai and Tai are different in ancient times and are suspected to be different; Xuanzhou, theZhuangzi -In the Yoga says: “Yao …… streamed Gong Gong in Youdu.” Shang Shu – Yao Dian (姚典) says: “Flowing Gong Gong in You Zhou.” Xuan and You mean the same thing, or perhaps Youzhou, but the place is difficult to verify. The name Jizhou is also used for the northern part of the Taiyi mountain system, where the water flowed in the past (now the Yellow River). Bozhou (a name for Hamzhou), ShandongNortheast In ancient times, there was the Bo Gu clan.The History -The Zhou dynasty is said to have moved its (Am) ruler to Bo Gu, 15 miles northeast of Boxing County, from which the name Bo Zhou originated.

Yangzhou, for the myth of the sun out of the eastern part of Shandong ancient Yang State, “read the history of the Fangji Jiuyou” Volume 1 – the situation of the state city in the past generation a cloud: “Yishui County, south of the Yang Du City, the ancient Yang State. Or said, Yang country originally in the southeast of the present Yidu County, Qi forced to move in this.” For the relocation of Qi, see Spring and Autumn – The Second Year of Min Gong. In Yidu there is now a river called Yangshui, and in Laizhou there was the ancient Yangqiu Mountain (Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi, Volume 138 – Laizhou Prefecture: “Yangqiu Mountain is 30 miles southeast of Yei County, also known as Ma’anshan Mountain.” (now known as Daze Mountain), both of which may have been associated with Yangzhou. The name of Yangzhou is derived from this; Shenzhou, as the He Tu Zu Di Xiang says: “Five thousand miles south-east of Kunlun is the name Shenzhou, and there are five mountains where the emperor lives.” It is difficult to test the fact of the land, but the “Surname Court” cloud: “Luangxie has God’s”, I do not know whether it is related; Angzhou (or as the second state), the land is difficult to test the fact; Rongzhou, southwest Shandong ancient Xu Rong, “Zuo Zhuan – Yin Gong two years” cloud: “Guild Rong in Qian.” That is. The name Rongzhou is derived from this.

Jizhou is located in the centre of the city. It is more frequently mentioned in literature, for example, in Chu Shu – Li Sao, “There is a surplus in Jizhou, and the four seas are not exhausted.” In the Huainanzi (Huai Nan Zi), Gao Ying’s commentary says: “Ji is in the middle of nine states, which means within the four seas.” However, none of them indicates the exact location.

The earliest known relationship with Jizhou is now feared to be the Yellow Emperor and Chi You. The Shanhaijing – the great wilderness north scriptures: “Chi You made an army to attack the yellow emperor, the yellow emperor made Yinglong attack the field of Jizhou, …… then killed Chi You.” The Book of Yizhou – Taste of Wheat: “Chi You is chasing the (Red) Emperor, fighting in Zhuo Lu’s A, nine corners without missing. The Red Emperor was so frightened that he told the Yellow Emperor to execute Chi You and kill him in Zhong Ji.” Other materials about the Yellow Emperor’s battle with Chi You include, “The Book of the First Learning”, Volume 9, citing “Guizang – Qi Divination”: “Chi You …… came out of the Yang Shui, with eight arms and eight toes and a sparse head, ascended the nine nao to attack the empty mulberry, the Yellow Emperor killed him in Qing Qiu.” The Salt and Iron Discourses – The Junhe: “The Yellow Emperor fought Zhuo Lu and killed the two sources and Chi You and became the Emperor.”

Located in the north of the country

 The Red Emperor, or Emperor Yan The name of the ancient emperor of Shu, also known as the Da Ting Clan, is near the present-day city of Qufu. 空桑即穷桑,《左传-昭公二十九》:”There were four uncles, …… who did not fail in their duties in the world, so they helped poor sang.”Duyu Note: “Poor Sang, the name of Shao Hao also. …… The land of Poor Sang is in the north of Lu.” Poor Sang is likely to be the small mountain range at the junction of Ningyang County and Qufu and Sishui counties. Where the Yellow Emperor lived, the hill of Xuan Yuan, the “Shanhaijing – Overseas Western Classic” says: “The country of Xuan Yuan is [here] [to the north of it], on the occasion of the Poor Mountain, whose unlived man is eight hundred years old. [One says] in the north of the country of women. A human-faced snake with its tail crossed over its head. The poor mountain is to the north of it, and does not dare to shoot westward, fearing the hill of Xuan Yuan. [One says] in the north of the country of Xuan Yuan.” Since it is said that “they did not dare to shoot to the west”, the Xuan Yuan mound must be in the west of the poor mountain, and the “one said” is not reliable. The “one said” is not reliable. The poor mountain is the poor mulberry, which is in the “north of Lu”, so the Xuan Yuan hill must have been northwest of Qufu. The Lv’s Spring and Autumn Period – Shen Da Lan – Shen Da” said: “After the sealing of the Yellow Emperor in the cast.” After the cast for the snake mound county government, in the present day Tai’an City, southwest of the town of Xia Zhang south of the old county village, is in the northwest of Qufu. Since he was sealed here, it is possible that this is where the ancient Xuan Yuan mound is located, or at least not too far away. Zhuo Lu, or Shu Lu, Candle Dragon, and Jiu Nao, were the ancient Shu tribe. The Zuo Zhuan – The Eighteenth Year of Duke Xuan says: “Chu then had the battle of Shu.” Du Pre Note: “Shu, the land of Lu, has Shu Ting in the northwest of Bo County, Tai Shan.” It is to the west of the present-day city of Tai’an. It is evident that there were indeed Shu tribes here in the distant past. In the Shanhaijing – The Northern Classic of the Great Wilderness, it says: “Beyond the northwest sea, north of the Red Water, there is Mount Zhangwei. There is a god with a human face, a snake body and a red body, and a straight eye that is riding. …… is called Candle Dragon.” Mount Zhangwei is Mount Zhong, also known as Mount Chungmu and Mount Dong. The author has relied on the Biography of Mu Tianzi The author has inferred that this mountain is probably the main peak of the present-day Meng Mountain Range, Guemengding. If this is the case, then the ancient Shu tribes were originally located in the northeast of Pingyi County.

The name Jizhou, in Jin, means ‘B’ in Chinese, which is a human form with a double-horned ghost face. The ancient Chinese custom of worshipping ghosts, Jizhou when that is the meaning of the ghost state. Liang “Shu Yi Ji” said on the volume: “there are Chi You God, the common cloud person cow (hoof) [head?] The four eyes and six hands. …… Qin and Han said Chi You’s, ears and temples like a sword and halberd, head with horns, and Xuan Yuan fight, with horns against people, people can not to.” Exactly the image of a ghost. Chi You was killed in Jizhou, and it seems that he should have been killed in his lair. The Red Emperor, the Yellow Emperor, the poor sang, Zhuo Lu since all in the Wensi upper source, so analysis, Chi You, Jizhou should also be in the Wensi upper source range. The “Chronicle” also said: “Now Jizhou has a music name “Chi You play”, its people two, two, three, three, head wearing cow horns against each other. Han made horns against the play, cover its legacy system.” There are many Chi relics in Shandong, and also Chi opera, according to Mr. Ma Dehuai: “In the early years, the folk of Sishui County in Shandong preserved this tradition.” This is also evident.

 To be more specific, the author has suggested, based on the biography of Mu Tianzi, that the Yangshui River is probably the present-day Chaibun River, which flows through the territory of present-day Xintai, and is one of the tributaries of the Wen River. There is a certain amount of controversy in the academic community regarding the Chaibun River. According to the “Water Classic – Wenshui Note”, the ancient Chaibun River was originally called Zishui, because it flowed through the northern part of the former city of Chai County (now Chai Cheng Village in Xintai) and was “called the Chaibun River”, but its source was not the present-day The Eastern Zhou But its source was not the present-day river, but the present-day Yangliu River. The Zuo Zhuan – Zhaogong 26 says: “The adults who attacked the Qi division drank their horses in Zizi,” and became 90 miles northeast of present-day Ningyang County, which proves that the ancient Chaibun River was indeed called Zishui, and Li’s claim is well founded. As for the present-day East Zhou River, the “Water Classic – Sushui Note” is the source of the ancient Sushui, which flows southwest into the Sishui. However, it is impossible to connect the river to the mountains between the river and the river, which means that the river cannot be the source of the ancient Soo River, but can only flow westwards into the Zishui (ancient Chaibun River). Li Daoyuan must have missed the point. As for the Shandong General Records, which state that the source of the Soo River is at Guanshan, and that the Little Wen River (the present-day East Zhou River) converged with the Zishui around the time of the Yuan and Ming dynasties, where did the Little Wen River flow before it did so? It would not have become an abyss, would it? So the Xiaowen River must have been a tributary of the Zishui since ancient times, and its name may once have been Yangshui. The “return to the Tibetan – Qi divination” said: “Chi …… from the Yang Shui,” if the Yang Shui is the Yang Shui, Chi and in the WenSi on the source of the range, the Yang Shui can only be the source of today’s East Zhou River today Chaibun River, Chi can only be in the territory of Xintai City. This is very likely. If this is the case, the land of Jizhou is also in the territory of the present-day Xintai city.

 To put it another way, Ying Shao’s note in the article Ping Yang County, Hedong County in the Hanshu – Geography says: “The capital of Yao is also in the Yang of the Ping River.” Huang Fu Qui, as quoted in The Records of the Five Emperors, says: “The capital of Yao is Pingyang, which in the Book of Songs is the state of Tang.” In the “Guang Hong Ming Ji – To Fu Yi on the Abolition of the Buddhist Monks”, the ancient text of the “Chronicle of the Five Emperors” is quoted as saying, “Shun imprisoned Yao in Pingyang and took the emperor’s throne.” From this we can see that there was no question of Yao’s capital being Pingyang. Where was Pingyang then? According to literature, there were four ancient names for Pingyang: one in Shanxi, “Zuo Zhuan – Zhao Gong 28”: “Zhao Dynasty was Pingyang  Dafu In the year of Jin Lie A.D., Han Wuzi’s capital was Pingyang.” The present-day Linfen city; one in Henan Province, “Zuo Zhuan – the Sixteenth Year of the Lord of Sorrows” says: “The Marquis of Wei drank wine at Pingyang,” southeast of the present-day Sli County; two in Shandong Province, “Spring and Autumn – the Eighth Year of the Duke of Xuan” says: “Cheng Pingyang.” Present-day Xintai City, the city’s government; “Zuo Zhuan – Liao Gong 27 years”: “Yue Zi made Houyong come to hire …… alliance in Pingyang.” Du Note: “West Pingyang.” The Water Classic – Si Shui Note quotes the ancient text of the Chronicle as saying:”King Huicheng of Liang In the twenty-ninth year, Qi Tian Giggles and the Song people invaded my eastern deserts and besieged Pingyang.” The present-day capital of Zoucheng.

 There is no evidence that Yao was in Henan, so the possibility that Ping Yang in Sli County was the capital of Yao is very unlikely and can be ruled out. There is more evidence that Yao was in Shandong, so it is possible that one of the two places in Xintai and Zoucheng, Pingyang, was the capital of Yao. Further, Gu Zuyu commented on the situation in Tai’an Prefecture, saying: “The Prefecture is blocked by Mount Tai to the north and bordered by the Wen River to the south, between Qi and Lu, making it a central place. The most beautiful part of Shandong is Mount Tai, and the most beautiful part of Mount Tai is in Tai’an. It is a place of great importance for the state to be able to sweep away the three Qi’s.” This situation was particularly evident in Tai’an County (now a city), which was ‘between Qi and Lu, a pivotal place’. According to archaeological research, the Neolithic culture of Shandong – the Hai Dai Longshan culture – was distributed in and around the mountains of southern central Lu, and Xintai was at the centre of this range. This is a crucial point. Although Yao may have started in the present-day Heze area, it is highly likely that he set up his capital in the area of Xintai and took centre stage to control the four directions. In this respect, Zoucheng, in the south-west, is no match, meaning that if Yao was in Shandong, it is most likely that his capital, Pingyang, was in Xintai. There is also more evidence for Yao in Shanxi, and although it is not entirely certain that Pingyang in Linfen was the capital of Yao, it cannot be completely denied either. However, since it is more likely that Yao was in Shandong than in Shanxi, and since there is more evidence, it is more likely that the capital of Yao was in Xintai than in Linfen. In conclusion, it is most likely that Ping Yang in Xintai was the capital of Yao. Zuo Zhuan – Six Years of the Duke of Sorrows Confucius The Book of Xia is quoted as saying: “But he, Tao Tang, commanded his Tianchang and had this Jifang. Now, having lost its line and disrupted its discipline, it was destroyed and died.” Tao Tang, the clan of Yao, is known to have been in Jizhou, and the capital, Pingyang, is most likely to have been in Xintai, which means that the ancient Jizhou was most likely to have been within the present-day city of Xintai.

 If we understand this, it is easy to understand why the nine states of the Hetu school are so evenly distributed, and why Jizhou is called “the centre”. The theory of the nine states of the Hetu school is not nonsense. Later, according to theMencius -Wanzhang Shang” says: “Shun …… then became the son of China, trampled on the position of the Son of Heaven, and lived in Yao’s palace, forcing Yao’s son.” The Book of History – Book of Sealings Justice quotes the Shi Ben as saying, “Xia Yu was capitalized in Yangcheng, avoiding Shang Jun as well. It was also the capital of Pingyang.” It can be seen that both Shun and Yu may have been located in Pingyang, the capital of Yao, and both may have been located in the present-day city of Xintai. The long history of the town of Yucun to the west of the present day city provides another piece of evidence to support this possibility. Why should this be so? It certainly has to do with the geographical situation of Xintai (right in the middle). Why would this be so? I’m afraid it has to do with the fact that Yu may have been all here!

 By the time of the Warring States period, the expansion of boundaries and the forgetfulness of ancient history made it difficult to read the Hetu school of Kyushu doctrine, which actually preserved the history of the first Xia. So they were interpreted and rewritten according to the maps of China at the time, giving rise to the Zhouli school of Kyushu. We can even judge in general terms how early or late the Zhouli school was created, based on the number of original features preserved by each of the schools (e.g. the terms due east, due north, due west, due south, southeast, northeast, etc., which define their location by direction), i.e. perhaps the Zhouli was the earliest, the Lu Shi Chunqiu second, the Yu Gong second, and the Erya last. Later, theZou Yan The Confucians called China, and thought that it was one of the eighty-one divisions of the world in which they lived. The name of China is Chixian Shenzhou. Within Chixian Shenzhou, there is its own Kyushu, which is Yu’s order of Kyushu, but it cannot be the number of states. Outside of China, there are nine such states, which are called ‘Kyushu’. Then there was a region surrounded by the sea, where no people or beasts could communicate with each other, such as in a district, and it was called a state. And so there are nine of these, and then there is the great Yinghai Sea that surrounds them, and the heaven and earth.” This is, I am afraid, the result of Zou Yan’s inability to understand the differences between the two ‘nine states’, and his compromise.

Bronze Age

The earliest work to present Seves’ theory of chiefdoms in a more comprehensive way and to attempt to use it to study the origins of the Chinese state was Zhang Guangzhi’s The Bronze Age in China (Sanlian Bookstore, 1983), and this view is represented by Xie Weiyang’s Early Chinese States (Zhejiang People’s Publishing House, 1995) , Wang Zhenzhong, A Comparative Study of the Origins of Chinese Civilization (Shaanxi People’s Publishing House, 1994). It is also discussed in Li Xueqin’s edited Studies on Ancient Chinese Civilization and State Formation (Yunnan People’s Publishing House, 1997). There is still controversy in academic circles, but there is a consensus that the Yellow River basin was not yet a state at this time, and this is not discussed here. The question of the status and role of the Yellow River basin and the Datong River basin in the pre-international system of East Asia at this time is a matter for examination.

 An analysis of the lines of the Yugong clearly shows the dominant position occupied by Jizhou. Firstly, Jizhou is listed as the first of the nine states. Secondly, the other eight states are mentioned with statements describing their geographical location, such as ‘Ji and He are only in Qingzhou’, ‘Hai and Dai are only in Qingzhou’, ‘Huai and Hai are only in Yangzhou’, etc., whereas The other eight states are all mentioned as ‘the only states in the world’. Thirdly, the other eight states all mention ‘the tribute of the tributes’, while Jizhou does not. According to Jin Jingfang: “Originally, the tribal alliance of Yao, Shun and Yu was only in one part of Jizhou. But due to the historical constraints of the time, it was not yet possible to incorporate the tribal alliances, tribes, clans, etc. that existed in the eight states into their own tribal alliance.” Jin Jingfang and Lu Shaogang, A New Interpretation of the Shang Shu – Yu Xia Shu, Liaoning Ancient Books Publishing House, 1996, ‘Preface’, p. 4. The description of Kyushu as a separate world in the Yugong is evidence that a pre-international system of East Asia already existed at that time. The Historical Records – The Records of the Five Emperors says of Shun: “In the south he fondled the Jiaotui, in the north the Fa, the Xirong, the Xiezhi, the Qizhi, the Qizhi concealed, the Dui, the Qiang, in the north the Shanrong, the Fa, the Xishen, and in the east the Chang and the Bird-Yi.” The Book of Sayings – Xiuwen says of Yu: “The south caressed Jiaotui and Dafa, the west Xizhi, Quxuosuo, Diao and Qiang, the north to Shanrong and Xishen, the east to Changyi and Dao Yi, all within the four seas wore the merits of Emperor Shun.” It is not so much the boundaries of the country as the spatial extent of this former international system that is being spoken of. Its location in the east, where it reaches the bird yi, is the Datong River valley inhabited by the ‘island yi’ of the Yugong, and it is clear that theNorth Korea The northern part of the peninsula was included in the pre-international system of East Asia.

The division of the pre-international system into nine states in the Yugong means that the specific units that made up this pre-international system, whether tribal confederations, tribes, clans, or settlements or various levels of alliances between settlements, were, to be sure, each of them first constituted nine large regional subsystems, which were then linked together to form the pre-international system of East Asia.

 The “Dongyi” were spread over a large area including Shandong Peninsula The ‘Dongyi’ were spread over a large area including the Liaodong Peninsula, the Korean Peninsula, and the Liaotung Peninsula, constituting a large tribe inhabiting the Bohai Sea. The archaeological and cultural commonalities of the Bohai Rim are also evidence of this.

The relationship between the bird-yi and the Yanhuang line of tribes is not found in the history books, except for the tribute paths recorded in the Yugong, but the relationship between the east-yi and the Yanhuang line of tribes is traceable in the history books.

The leaders of the alliance after the Yellow Emperor, as contained in the Records of the Five Emperors, were, in order of precedence.

 Huangdi -Zhuanji –Divine Emperor –Bestow –Sun -Yu

 The Zhuanji clan, according to Mr. Zhang Boquan, lived in the western part of present-day Liaoning province, The Essay on Minzi and Korea, Jilin Literature and History Press, 1994, pp. 2-5. This is also where the Shang tribes originated in their ancestral times. The Shang ancestors originated in the area of the Qilao Tu Mountain in the present-day Zhaowuda League of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. See Jin Jingfang, ‘Shang Culture Originated in the North of China’, Chinese Literature and History Series, no. 7; ‘On the Question of the Place of Origin of the Yin People’, Collected Works of History, reprint no. 1981; and Gan Zhigeng et al, ‘Shang First Originated in Youyan’, Historical Studies, no. 5, 1985. From the fact that the legend of the origin of the Shang tribes belongs to the same type as that of the Dongyi tribes, Yang Jun, ‘A Study of the Marriage Poems of the Shijing and Pre-Qin Marriage Customs’, Jilin People’s Publishing House, 2001, pp. 151-153. The inhabitants of this area clearly belonged to a branch of the Dongyi tribe. The first of these is the Zuo Zhuan, Zhaogong 17: “When Shaohao Zhi was established, the phoenix and the bird arrived, so it was recorded in the bird.” Shaohao Zhi had a bird as his totem, and his descendant Tanzi was the ruler of a small Eastern barbarian state, so it is clear that Zhi also belonged to the Eastern barbarian group. Shun, according to Mencius Li Lou, “Shun was born in Zhu Feng, moved to Nian Xia, and died in Ming Jiao, also a member of the eastern barbarians.” According to Zhou Di’s “Record of Customs and Lands”, “Shun, a man of the eastern barbarians, was born in Yao Xu”, indicating that Shun was also a man of the eastern barbarians. During his lifetime, Yu chose Gaotao and Buri Gao Tao and Bo Yi both came from the tribe of the Dongyi, and Gao Guangjing believes that both Gao Tao and Bo Yi belonged to the Shao Shao group, i.e. from the Dongyi tribe. See Gao Guangjing, The Origin and Formation of the Chinese State, Hunan People’s Publishing House, 1998, p. 52. …… A comparison of the records in the Records of the Five Emperors reveals that in the alliance to which Yao Shunyu belonged, an eastern yi was the leader of the group every other generation. This suggests that the alliance to which Yao Shunyu belonged could have been divided into two systems, the Yanhuang and the Dongyi, both of which were allied on an equal footing, with the two systems taking turns at the head of the alliance. It would seem that Jizhou, as a sub-system, could be divided internally into two units: the Yanhuang and the Dongyi.

Handi Division


Jizhou: Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi, Liaoning; Dezhou, Liaocheng; Anyang, Hebi, Puyang, Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, Jiyuan; Hohhot, Ulanqab

Yanzhou: Heze, Jining; Shangqiu; Huaibei, Suizhou, Bozhou

Yuzhou: Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, Luohe, Luoyang, Nanyang, Shangqiu, Xinxiang, Xinyang, Xuchang, Zhoukou, Pingdingshan, Sanmenxia, Zhumadian; Fuyang

Qingzhou: Jinan, Qingdao, Dongying, Weifang, Yantai, Weihai, Zibo, Laiwu

Xuzhou: Xuzhou, Suqian, Tai’an, Zaozhuang, Linyi, Rizhao, Lianyungang

Yangzhou: Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Macau; Nanjing, Yangzhou, Taizhou, Suzhou, Changzhou, Wuxi, Nantong, Yancheng, Zhenjiang, Huai’an; Hefei, Wuhu, Bengbu, Huainan, Xuancheng, Tongling, Anqing, Huangshan, Chuzhou, Chizhou, Liuan, Maanshan

Jingzhou:Hubei, Hunan; Guilin

Liangzhou: Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan; Hanzhong, Ankang; Chengdu, Mianyang, Guangyuan, Nanchong, Bazhong, Dazhou, Ya’an, Deyang, Suining, Guang’an, Meishan, Ziyang, Leshan, Neijiang, Zigong, Yibin, Luzhou

Yongzhou:Gansu, Ningxia; Xi’an, Tongchuan, Baoji, Xianyang, Weinan, Yan’an, Shangluo, Yulin; Baotou, Wuhai, Erdos, Bayannur

Qingzhou is a synonym for the East, and Qingzhou is in the East. The eight other states are like the eight trigrams representing the eight directions, while Qingzhou is the first in the east, apart from Yuzhou. The state of Yuzhou, Jizhou and Yanzhou are the most important.

During the Han dynasty, the geographical boundaries of the Han dynasty included Lingnan and Gansu, and for more than 2000 years the geographical boundaries of the Han dynasty have remained unchanged.

Scope of the Nine States

Han Dynasty

Western Han Dynasty There were thirteen states, namely Jizhou, Youzhou, Bingzhou, Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Yangzhou, Jiaozhou, Jingzhou, Yizhou, Shuofang and Liangzhou, of which Yizhou was the Liangzhou of the Kyushu; Youzhou and Bingzhou were divided from Jizhou; Liangzhou was originally part of Yongzhou; Jiaoczhou was assigned to Yangzhou of the Kyushu in the Twelve Divisions[30-32]; Shuofang was divided from Yongzhou; and Sili was part of Jizhou, Yongzhou and Yuzhou respectively. The three states of Jizhou, Yongzhou and Yuzhou were respectively part of the state.

The thirteen states of the Western Han are therefore equivalent to the boundaries of the Kyushu.

 Jizhou: Hedong County, Hainai County, Wei County, Julu County, Changshan County, Qinghe County, Zhao State, Guangping State, Zhending StateZhongshan State Haidong, Xindou, Hezhang, Zhuo, Bohai, Dai, Shanggu, Yuyang, Beiping, Liaoxi, Liaodong, Xuantu, Lelang, Guangyang and Taiyuan, Shangdang, Yunzhong, Dingxiang, and Yemen

Yanzhou: Eastern County, Chenliu County, Shanyang County, Jiyin County, Taishan County, Chengyang State, Huaiyang State, Dongping State

Qingzhou: Plain County, Cheoncheon County, Jinan County, Qi County, Beihai County, Donglai County, Ziacheon State, Gaomi State, Jiaodong State

Xuzhou: Chu, Sishui, Linhuai, Langxu and Donghai Counties

Yangzhou: Guangling, Huiji, Lujiang, Jiujiang, Danyang, Yuzhang, Liu’an and Nanhai, Yulin, Cangwu, Jiaoji, Hepu, Jiuzhen, and Rinnan

Jingzhou: Nanyang County, Nan County, Jiangxia County, Guiyang County, Wuling County, Zeroing County, Changsha State

 Yuzhou: Hongnong, Henan, Yingchuan, Runan, Pei, Liang Ru

Liang Prefecture: Hanzhong, Guanghan, Shu, Gandhara, Yuezhi, Yizhou, Sheko, Ba and Wudu Counties

Yongzhou: Shuofang, Wu Yuan, Shang, Xihe, Beiji and Jingzhao Yin, Fengyi, Fufeng and Longxi, Jincheng, Tianshui, An Ding, Wuwei, Zhangye, Jiuquan, Dunhuang

The three counties of the twelve divisions of the wilderness are the three counties of Hedong, Hainai and Henan together.

Therefore, in the western part of the division, Liangzhou and the three counties of Jingzhao, Fengyi and Fufeng of the Han dynasty belonged to the “Yongzhou” (Qin land) in the “Dongjing and Jiji” division of the Kyushu, and Yizhou in the southwest belonged to Liangzhou; in the north, Bingzhou and Jizhou of the Han dynasty belonged to the “Jizhou” (Zhao land) in the “Pleiades and Bi” division of the Kyushu. In the north, the Han Dynasty’s Pingzhou and Jizhou belonged to the “Jizhou” (the land of Zhao) in the “Pleiades and Bi” division, and the Han Dynasty’s Youzhou belonged to the “Youzhou” (the land of Yan) in the “Wei and Ji” division of the Kyushu. “In the south, Jingzhou of the Han dynasty belongs to the “Jingzhou” (Chu land) in the “Yixi and Zizhi” division of the Kyushu, and Yangzhou and Jiaoshu of the Han dynasty belong to the “Dou, Zhaoniu and Yangzhou” (the land of Wu, East Yue and South Yue) in the division of “Wuyu”; in the east, the land up to the sea, i.e. Qingzhou in the division of “Xiu and Danger” and Xuzhou in the division of “Kui and Lou “The land of Qi and Lu, where Xuzhou is located, is also part of the Kyushu.

 The area of Jizhou at the end of the Han Dynasty was equivalent to at least all of the six provinces and cities of Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, Liaoning, Shanxi and Shaanxi and part of Inner Mongolia today. At the same time, the Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms The term ‘China’ is instead a proxy for the dynastic power that occupied the central plain, or the Middle Kingdom.

Eastern Han dynasty In the 18th year of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the state of Jizhou was reorganised into nine states, including Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, Beijing, Tianjin and a part of Inner Mongolia; the state of Yong covered all of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia; all of Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Guizhou and a part of Guangxi belonged to Yizhou (Liangzhou); and all of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan and southern Henan were under the jurisdiction of Jingzhou. The whole of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei and Hunan provinces and the southern part of Henan Province were under the jurisdiction of Jingzhou.

Jin Dynasty

 The scope of Kyushu in the Jin dynasty was comparable to that of the Han dynasty, as described in the Book of Jin – Upper Geography and the Book of Jin – Lower Geography.Western Jin dynasty The nine states of the country, to which each of the nineteen states belonged, were as follows.

Jizhou: Jizhou, Pingzhou, Youzhou, Bingzhou

Yanzhou: Yanzhou

Qingzhou: Qingzhou

Xuzhou: Xuzhou

Yangzhou: Yangzhou, Jiaoshu, Guangzhou

Jingzhou: Jingzhou

Yuzhou: Division, Yuzhou

Liangzhou: Liang, Yizhou, Ningzhou

Yongzhou: Yongzhou, Liangzhou, Qinzhou

Sui dynasty

 According to the Sui dynasty book -Superior Geography‖, -Sui Shu – Middle Geography‖ and -Sui Shu – Lower Geography‖, theSui dynasty  The respective Kyushu state areas to which each county in the country belonged were as follows.

Jizhou: Xindu, Qinghe, Wei, Ji, He’nei, Changping, Shangdang, Hedong, Jiang, Wencheng, Linfen, Longquan, Xihe, Lishi, Yanmen, Mayi, Dingxiang, Loujian, Taiyuan, Xiangguo, Wu’an, Zhao, Hengshan, Boling, Zhuo, Shanggu, Yuyang, Beiping, Anle, Liaoxi

Yanzhou: Dong County, Dongping County, Jibei County, Wuyang County, Bohai County, Plain County

Qingzhou: Beihai County, Qi County, Donglai County, Gaomi County

Xuzhou: Pengcheng County, Xiapi County, Lu County, Langxie County, Donghai County

 Yangzhou: Jiangdu, Zhongli, Huainan, Yiyang, Xuchun, Lujiang, Tongan, Liyang, Danyang, Xuancheng, Biling, Wu, Huiji, Yuhang, Xin’an, Dongyang, Yongjia, Jian’an, Suian, Poyang, Linchuan, Luling, Nankang, Yichun, Yuzhang, Nanhai, Longchuan, Yi’an, Gaoliang, Xin’an, Yongxi, Cangwu Seian, Yongping, Ulim, Hepu, Juya, Ningyue, Jiaoji, Jiuzhen, Ilnam, Bijing, Haiyin Linyi County

Jingzhou: Nanxian, Yiling, Jingling, Xinyang, Yuanling, Wuling, Qingjiang, Xiangyang, Jhongling, Handong, Anlu, Yong’an, Yiyang, Jiujiang, Jiangxia, Liyang, Baling, Changsha, Hengshan, Guiyang, Zuiling, Xiping

Henan County, Xingyang County, Liang County, Qiao County, Ji Yin County, Xiangcheng County, Yingchuan County, Runan County, Huaiyang County, Ruyin County, Shangluo County, Honong County, Xiyang County, Nanyang County, Annan County, Huaian County

Liang Prefecture: Hanchuan County, Xicheng County, Fanling County, Qinghua County, Tongchuan County, Dangqu County, Hanyang County, Lintao County, Dangchang County, Wudu County, Tongchang County, Hechi County, Shunzheng County, Yicheng County, Pingwu County, Wenshan County, Pu’an County, Jinshan County, Xincheng County, Baxi County, Suining County, Fuling County, Ba County, Badong County, Shu County, Linqiong County, Meishan County, Longshan County, Ziyang County, Luchuan County, Gandan County, Yueku County, Sheng Ke County, Qian’an County

Yongzhou: Jingzhao, Fengyi, Fufeng, Anding, Beiji, Shang, Yiyin, Yan’an, Honghua, Pingliang, Shuofang, Yanchuan, Lingwu, Yulin, Wuyuan, Tianshui, Longxi, Jincheng, Quercus, Qinghe, Xiping, Wuwei, Zhangye, Dunhuang, Shanshan, Zhimaxian, Xihai, Heyuan

Tang Dynasty

Henan Road: the four states of Henan, Xu, Qing and Yan

Hebei Province: part of the Jizhou region and the northern border of Yanzhou

Hedong Road: part of the Jizhou region

Guannei Road: part of the Yongzhou region

The Long You Road: part of the Yongzhou region

Jiannan Road: part of the Liang State domain

Shannan Province: part of Jing and Liang Provinces

Huainan Road: part of the Yangzhou region and the eastern border of Jingzhou

Jiangnan Road: part of the Yangzhou region and the southern border of Jingzhou

Lingnan Road: part of the southern border of Yangzhou

Song dynasty

Kaifeng Prefecture: part of Yan, Yu, Qing and Xu

Eastern Jingdong Road: part of Yan, Yu, Qing and Xu

East-West Beijing Road: part of Yan, Yu, Qing and Xu

South Jingxi Road: a region divided among the five states of Ji, Yu, Jing, Yan and Liang

North Jingxi Road: the territory of the five states of Ji, Yu, Jing, Yan and Liang

Hebei Road (Hebei East Road and Hebei West Road): part of Yan, Ji and Qing Provinces

East River Road: part of the Jie and Yong regions

West Shaanxi Road (Yongxingjun Road and Qinfeng Road): part of the four states of Yong, Liang, Ji and Yu

Two Zhejiang Roads: part of the Yangzhou area

Huainan East Road: part of the Yang and Xu states

West Huainan Road: part of the domain of Yang, Jing and Yu states

East Jiangnan Road: part of the Yangzhou area

Jiangnan West Road: part of the Yangzhou area

Jinghu North Road: part of the Jingzhou area

Hunan Road, Jingzhou: part of the Jingzhou area

Fujian Road: part of the Yangzhou area

The four Chuanxia Roads (Chengdu Fu Road, Zizhou Road, Li Zhou Road and Kui Zhou Road): the three states of Liang, Yong and Jing

Guangnan East Road: part of the Jing and Yang states

Guangnan West Road: part of the area of Jing and Yang states

 In addition, the Song Dynasty The Liao people also regarded the Yan-Yun area as part of Kyushu and called it “Han land” and “Han frontier”, and worshipped the northern town of Mount Mamu, which was not within the Song territory but was within the boundaries of Kyushu, and continued to worship the five mountains, five towns, four mishaps and four seas after Jingkang. The Liao people also regarded Yan Yun as “the land of Han” and “the former frontier of China”, and agreed that the Yan Yun area was part of Kyushu. The Yan and Yun were also regarded by the Yezhen as “the land of Han”.

At the same time, the Song dynasty also believed that a part of the “homeland” and “Han land” of the Han region (Kyushu) had been appropriated by the Western Xia.

 Even after the loss of the northern Han Dynasty the Southern Song dynasty also continued to worship the four mountains and four towns.

Ming Dynasty

According to Emperor Hongwu, the “old frontier of China” included Min and Yue (the present-day provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan), Jiangdong, Huxiang and Xiangyang (the present-day provinces of Hubei and Hunan), Gancheng (the present-day province of Jiangxi), Changhuai (the present-day province of Jiangsu and northern Anhui), Qi and Lu, He and Luo (the present-day province of Henan), You and Zhao, Jin and Ji (the present-day provinces of Hebei and Shanxi and the two cities of Tianjin and Beijing) The city of Qinlong (present-day Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces), Liaohai (present-day Liaoning province), Bashu (present-day Sichuan and Chongqing) and Yunnan were included.

Ming Dynasty The eight provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangxi and Hainan were all considered to be part of Yangzhou, one of the nine state regions.

The Ming dynasty considered the area of today’s Liaoning province to be part of the Kyushu Prefecture as well.

According to the Siku Quanshu edition of the Ming Yitong Zhi, the prefectures and counties throughout the Ming dynasty that fell within the divisions of the Kyushu Prefecture were as follows.

Jizhou: Shuntian, Baoding, Hema, Zhending, Shunde, Guangping, Dame, Yongping, Yanqing, Baoan, Wanquan, Taiyuan, Pingyang, Datong, Lu’an, Fenzhou, Liao, Qin, Ze, Changde, Weihui, Huaiqing, west of Guangning (Guangningwei)

Yanzhou: part of Yanzhou Prefecture, Dongchang Prefecture, Kaifeng Prefecture

Qingzhou: Jinan Province, Qingzhou Province, Dengzhou Province, Laizhou Province, Liaodong Du Commandant’s Office (land east of Guangningwei)

Xuzhou: part of Xuzhou and Yanzhou Prefecture

Yangzhou: Yingtian, Fengyang, Suzhou, Songjiang, Changzhou, Zhenjiang, Yangzhou, Huai’an, Luzhou, Anqing, Taiping, Ningguo, Chizhou, Huizhou, Guangde, Hezhou, Chuzhou, Hangzhou, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Yanzhou, Jinhua, Quzhou, Dizhou, Shaoxing, Ningbo, Taizhou, Wenzhou, Nanchang, Raozhou, Guangxin, part of Nankang Jiujiang, part of Jianchang, Fuzhou, Linjiang, part of Ji’an, Ruizhou, Yuanzhou, Jiuzhou, Nan’an, Fuzhou, Quanzhou, Jianning, Yanping, Tingzhou, Xinghua, Shaowu, Zhangzhou, Fanning, Guangzhou, Shao, Nanxiong, Huizhou, Chao, Zhaoqing, Roding, Nanning and Gao, Lian, Leizhou, Qiong

Jingzhou: Wuchang Prefecture, Hanyang Prefecture, Chengtian Prefecture, De’an Prefecture, Huangzhou Prefecture, Jingzhou Prefecture, Yuezhou Prefecture, Changsha Prefecture, Baoqing Prefecture, Hengzhou Prefecture, Changde Prefecture, Chenzhou Prefecture, Yongshun, Baojing, Shaozhou Prefecture, Guilin Prefecture, Pingle Prefecture, Wuzhou Prefecture, Zhenyuan Prefecture, Sinan Prefecture, Shiqian Prefecture, Tongren Prefecture, Liping Prefecture and part of Nankang Prefecture, part of Jiujiang Prefecture, part of Ji’an Prefecture, part of Xiangyang Prefecture, part of Shizhou Prefecture, part of Wuzhou Prefecture, part of Guiyang Prefecture

Yongzhou: Xi’an Prefecture, Fengxiang Prefecture, Hanzhong Prefecture, Pingliang Prefecture, Gongchang Prefecture, Lintao Prefecture, Qingyang Prefecture, Yan’an Prefecture, Ningxiawei, Taoshuwei Military and Civilian Commandant Division, Minzhouwei Military and Civilian Commandant Division, Hezhouwei Military and Civilian Commandant Division, Jingruwei, Shaanxi Xingdu Commandant Division, Utopia Prefecture



Qinling, Luofu, Qianshan, Longquan, Micang, Wushan, Mfu, Taihang, Jiuyi

Top Ten Mountains

Mount Tai in the east, Mount Yi in the east, Mount Heng in the south, Mount Huiji in the south, Mount Hua in the west, Mount Wu in the west, Mount Heng in the north, Mount Mamlu in the north, Mount Song in the middle, Mount Huo in the middle and


 North China Plain, Poyang Lake Plain, the Pearl River Delta Plains, Chaoshan Plain, Basin, Sichuan Basin, Plateau, Shanxi Plateau

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